Coronary Artery Ectasia (CAE) is a phenomenon characterized by locally or diffuse coronary artery dilation of one or more coronary arteries. In the present study, the prevalence of acquired coronary ectasia and coronary risk factors for CAE was analyzed in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for suspected ischemic heart disease. We retrospectively analyzed 4000 patients undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease at our cardiac catheterization unit, and a total of 171 patients were selected. The study group was divided into three groups, 65 patients with CAE, 62 patients with significant obstructive coronary artery disease, and 44 patients with normal coronary angiograms as a control group. A negative correlation was observed between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the presence of CAE (r = −0.274, p
< 0.001). In addition, HDL-C (OR, 0.858; CI, 0.749–0.984; p
= 0.029), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio (OR, 1.987; CI, 1.542–2.882; p
= 0.034), and hemoglobin (OR, 2.060; CI, 1.114–3.809; p
= 0.021) were identified as independent risk factors for the development of CAE. In fact, we observed that a one-unit increase in HDL-C corresponded to a 15% risk reduction in CAE development and that each unit increase in hemoglobin could potentially increase the CAE risk by 2-fold. Low HDL-C could significantly increase the risk of developing CAE in healthy individuals. Elevated hemoglobin could predispose to subsequent dilation and aneurysm of the coronary artery. This work suggests that disordered lipoprotein metabolism or altered hemoglobin values can predispose patients to aneurysmal coronary artery disease.
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