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Open AccessArticle

Survival Comparison between Melanoma Patients Treated with Patient-Specific Dendritic Cell Vaccines and Other Immunotherapies Based on Extent of Disease at the Time of Treatment

1
Oncology Department, AIVITA Biomedical Inc., Irvine, CA 92612, USA
2
Medical Oncology and Hematology Department, Hoag Cancer Institute, Newport Beach, CA 92663, USA
3
Medical Oncology Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7040080
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 2 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy)
Encouraging survival was observed in single arm and randomized phase 2 trials of patient-specific dendritic cell vaccines presenting autologous tumor antigens from autologous cancer cells that were derived from surgically resected metastases whose cells were self-renewing in vitro. Based on most advanced clinical stage and extent of tumor at the time of treatment, survival was best in patients classified as recurrent stage 3 without measurable disease. Next best was in stage 4 without measurable disease, and the worst survival was for measurable stage 4 disease. In this study, the survival of these patients was compared to the best contemporary controls that were gleaned from the clinical trial literature. The most comparable controls typically were from clinical trials testing other immunotherapy approaches. Even though contemporary controls typically had better prognostic features, median and/or long-term survival was consistently better in patients treated with this dendritic cell vaccine, except when compared to anti-programmed death molecule 1 (anti-PD-1). The clinical benefit of this patient-specific vaccine appears superior to a number of other immunotherapy approaches, but it is more complex to deliver than anti-PD-1 while equally effective. However, there is a strong rationale for combining such a product with anti-PD-1 in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; dendritic cell; autologous tumor antigens; tumor initiating cells; vaccine; immunotherapy melanoma; dendritic cell; autologous tumor antigens; tumor initiating cells; vaccine; immunotherapy
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Dillman, R.O.; Hsieh, C. Survival Comparison between Melanoma Patients Treated with Patient-Specific Dendritic Cell Vaccines and Other Immunotherapies Based on Extent of Disease at the Time of Treatment. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 80.

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