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Healthcare, Volume 12, Issue 11 (June-1 2024) – 106 articles

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15 pages, 8045 KiB  
Article
Secondary Prevention via Case Managers in Stroke Patients: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Claims Data from German Statutory Health Insurance Providers
by Juliane A. Duevel, Sebastian Gruhn, John Grosser, Svenja Elkenkamp and Wolfgang Greiner
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111157 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Strokes remain a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The STROKE OWL study evaluated a novel case management approach for patients with stroke (modified Rankin Scale 0–4) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) who received support across healthcare settings and secondary prevention training [...] Read more.
Strokes remain a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The STROKE OWL study evaluated a novel case management approach for patients with stroke (modified Rankin Scale 0–4) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) who received support across healthcare settings and secondary prevention training from case managers for one year. The primary aim of this quasi-experimental study was a reduction in stroke recurrence. Here, we report the results of a health economic analysis of the STROKE OWL study, conducted in accordance with CHEERS guidelines. The calculations were based on claims data of cooperating statutory health insurance companies. In addition to a regression analysis for cost comparison, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was determined, and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis was carried out. In total, 1167 patients per group were included in the analysis. The intervention group incurred 32.3% higher direct costs (p < 0.001) than the control group. With a difference of EUR 1384.78 (95% CI: [1.2384–1.4143], p < 0.0001) and a 5.32% increase in hazards for the intervention group (HR = 1.0532, 95% CI: [0.7869–1.4096], p = 0.7274) resulting in an ICER of EUR 260.30, we found that the case management intervention dominated in the total stroke population, even for an arbitrarily high willingness to pay. In the TIA subgroup, however, the intervention was cost-effective even for a low willingness to pay. Our results are limited by small samples for both TIA and severe stroke patients and by claims data heterogeneity for some cost components, which had to be excluded from the analysis. Future research should investigate the cost-effectiveness of case management interventions for both severe stroke and TIA populations using appropriate data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthcare Management and Health Economics)
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16 pages, 5098 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Visual Art Therapy on Positive Symptoms, Negative Symptoms, and Emotions in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Shih-Cing Du, Chih-Yen Li, Ya-Yun Lo, Yu-Hsuan Hu, Chi-Wei Hsu, Chung-Yin Cheng, Tzu-Ting Chen, Pei-Hsuan Hung, Pao-Yen Lin and Chyi-Rong Chen
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111156 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 499
Abstract
Schizophrenia is characterized by psychiatric symptoms and emotional issues. While pharmacological treatments have limitations, non-pharmacological interventions are essential. Art therapy has the potential to enhance emotional expression, communication, and health; however, the effectiveness of visual art therapy remains uncertain. This systematic review and [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia is characterized by psychiatric symptoms and emotional issues. While pharmacological treatments have limitations, non-pharmacological interventions are essential. Art therapy has the potential to enhance emotional expression, communication, and health; however, the effectiveness of visual art therapy remains uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of visual art therapy on positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and emotions in patients with schizophrenia. This study reviews RCTs published prior to February, 2024. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CEPS, CNKI, Wanfang, and Yiigle databases were searched, and three independent researchers screened the studies. In this meta-analysis, standardized mean difference (SMD) was employed as a measure to calculate effect sizes for continuous variables using a random effects model, while the meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed with patient and intervention characteristics. A total of 31 studies revealed visual art therapy had a significant small-to-moderate effect on positive symptoms (SMD = 0.407, 95% CI 0.233 to 0.581), a moderate effect on negative symptoms (SMD = 0.697, 95% CI 0.514 to 0.880), a moderate effect on depression (SMD = 0.610, 95% CI 0.398 to 0.821), and a large effect on anxiety (SMD = 0.909, 95% CI 0.386 to 1.433). The subgroup analysis revealed painting and handcrafts had significant effects on positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and emotions. Combined Chinese calligraphy and painting had significant effects on positive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Better improvement was noted among the Asian population, and a longer weekly treatment duration was associated with better improvement in positive symptoms. Female participants tended to have more improvements in negative symptoms and anxiety through visual art therapy. The results indicate that visual art therapy has positive effects on the psychiatric symptoms and emotions of individuals with schizophrenia. We recommend future research further investigate art therapy modalities and durations. Full article
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11 pages, 588 KiB  
Study Protocol
Factors Influencing Dementia Care Competence among Care Staff: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review Protocol
by Jinfeng Zhu, Jing Wang, Bo Zhang, Xi Zhang and Hui Wu
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111155 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Background: Dementia care competence is defined as the ability, acquired through practical experience, to deliver high-quality care services to persons with dementia (PWD). However, many studies only focus on one aspect of competence using qualitative or quantitative research design and have small sample [...] Read more.
Background: Dementia care competence is defined as the ability, acquired through practical experience, to deliver high-quality care services to persons with dementia (PWD). However, many studies only focus on one aspect of competence using qualitative or quantitative research design and have small sample sizes of care staff with dementia. This study aims to conduct a mixed-methods systematic review of the factors influencing the competence of dementia care staff, and explore the relationship between these factors and competence. Methods: This review was designed following the PRISMA-P 2015 statement and methodological guidance for the conduct of mixed-methods systematic reviews from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Seven English and four Chinese databases will be searched to systematically review the existing eligible studies. JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research and Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies will be used to assess the methodological quality of each study. A JBI Mixed-Methods Data Extraction Form will be applied for data extraction. The JBI convergent integrated approach will be used for data synthesis and integration. The synthesized findings will be graded according to the JBI ConQual approach as high, moderate, low, or very low. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO in October 2023 (CRD42023474093). Full article
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12 pages, 209 KiB  
Article
Impact of Social Capital on Health Behaviors of Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China—An Analysis Based on CHARLS2020 Data
by Zheyu Wang, Yong Fang and Xingwei Zhang
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111154 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
To actively respond to the challenges posed by population aging, people are paying more and more attention to healthy behavioral lifestyles, and the impact of social capital as an informal system on health behaviors cannot be ignored. This paper explores the impact of [...] Read more.
To actively respond to the challenges posed by population aging, people are paying more and more attention to healthy behavioral lifestyles, and the impact of social capital as an informal system on health behaviors cannot be ignored. This paper explores the impact of social capital on health behaviors of middle-aged and older adults based on 2020 CHARLS data. Using binary logistic regression models, we discussed the association between social capital and five health behaviors. The results suggest that structural social capital significantly increases physical activity and physical examination behaviors among middle-aged and older adults but also decreases the probability of abstinence behaviors. Cognitive social capital increases the probability that middle-aged and older adults will have a reasonable amount of sleep and physical activity. However, it also decreases the probability that smoking cessation behaviors will occur. Further attention needs to be paid to the role of social capital, the creation of a harmonious social environment and the enhancement of social trust, the strengthening of communities and grass-roots social organizations, and the provision of more platforms for the participation of middle-aged and older adults in social activities, to improve the quality of the healthy lives of middle-aged and older adults and, in turn, to promote the establishment of healthy behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Quality of Life)
14 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health among a Sample of University Workers in the United Arab Emirates
by Anamika V. Misra, Heba M. Mamdouh, Anita Dani, Vivienne Mitchell, Hamid Y. Hussain, Gamal M. Ibrahim, Reham Kotb and Wafa K. Alnakhi
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111153 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Research on the mental health of university staff during the COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered a high prevalence of probable anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder among academic and non-academic staff in many parts of the world. This study aimed to assess the prevalence [...] Read more.
Research on the mental health of university staff during the COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered a high prevalence of probable anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder among academic and non-academic staff in many parts of the world. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and resilience among a sample of faculty and staff members working in the Higher College of Technology campuses in the UAE. From September to November 2021, a cross-sectional study was carried out using an online survey. The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, The Patient Health Questionnaire (9-items), and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale were used to assess anxiety, depression, and resilience. The impact of COVID-19 was assessed using a designated list of questions. The results demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic had impacted the mental health of the studied sample of university workers, with almost 16% of the participants having moderate-to-severe depression and anxiety symptoms. This study highlighted significant differences in the participants’ depressive and anxiety symptoms due to sociodemographic differences. Depression and anxiety symptoms were most prevalent among females, those of UAE nationality, and never-married workers, with females scoring 5.81 on the PHQ-9 compared to only 4.10 in males, p = 0.004 *. UAE-national participants had significantly higher mean PHQ-9 scores than their non-national counterparts (6.37 ± 5.49 SD versus 4.77 ± 5.1 SD, respectively, p = 0.040 *). Overall, the total mean scores of all participants were below the assumed cut-off threshold of having a high resilience level (29.51 ± 7.53 SD). The results showed a significant difference in severe depression symptoms as a result of the impact of COVID-19. These results could imply that the COVID-19 pandemic might have augmented negative mental health impacts on this sample of university workers. This study highlighted some areas where the responsible authorities can intervene to further protect and enhance the mental health of university workers, particularly after the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
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12 pages, 486 KiB  
Article
Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Hydration among Foreign Students of Óbuda University, Hungary
by Melvin Omone Ogbolu, Olanrewaju D. Eniade, Miklós Vincze and Miklós Kozlovszky
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111152 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
It is known that the quantity, makeup, and distribution of bodily fluids have a significant impact on the cognitive health, physiological health, and cell activity of human beings. This narrative could be influenced by the level of knowledge about hydration, dehydration, and the [...] Read more.
It is known that the quantity, makeup, and distribution of bodily fluids have a significant impact on the cognitive health, physiological health, and cell activity of human beings. This narrative could be influenced by the level of knowledge about hydration, dehydration, and the practice of Adequate Water Intake (AWI) of an individual based on the recommended daily Total Water Intake (TWI) by either the World Health Organization (WHO) or the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In this study, we have developed and validated a scale to adequately measure knowledge of the recommended daily Total Water Intake (TWI) practices among foreign students at Óbuda University, Hungary. Hence, we implemented an 11-item scale to measure the Knowledge of Hydration (KH-11) and evaluate its psychometric properties among students. This study is an online cross-sectional study assessing water intake knowledge with the use of the KH-11 tool among 323 students with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years, who have enrolled for at least two semesters at the University. The statistical analysis performed was reliability (using Cronbach alpha ≥ 70%) and factor analysis. Knowledge levels were categorized as poor (<50%), intermediate (50–70%), or adequate (71–100%). The intraclass correlation, chi-square, and rotated component matrix were also estimated and reported. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. Cronbach’s alpha analysis revealed that the KH-11 had an overall good reliability with a value of 0.80, where the survey items had an acceptable level of consistency ranging from 0.75 to 0.81 and demonstrated sufficient independence from each other as Pearson’s R within factors was positive and ranged from 0.02 to 0.74. In evaluating the participants’ knowledge of hydration, the total possible score for the scale is 72, while the mean score for the KH-11 was 55.2 ± 11.61 SD, and the factor analysis model yielded an acceptable fit (χ2 = 3259.4, p = 0.000). We recorded a high-level positive concordance of 0.770 with an average intraclass correlation of 0.80 at a 95% CI, where p-value = 0.000. Our findings show that the majority (66.3%) of the students have a good knowledge of hydration. However, the skewed distribution of the knowledge scores suggests that some may have lower levels of knowledge, which may warrant further study to improve knowledge in those students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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14 pages, 273 KiB  
Article
Lifestyle Medicine in Focus: A Cross-Sectional Study Comparing Domestic and International Students
by Eszter Kovács, Viktor Rekenyi, Anna Nánási, Csongor István Szepesi, Putu Ayu Indrayathi, Nóra Horváth, Angéla Csirmaz, Gréta Marjai and Kolozsvári László Róbert
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111151 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 338
Abstract
This study investigated lifestyle factors among Hungarian and international students, utilizing lifestyle medicine principles to enhance overall well-being. Conducted at the University of Debrecen through a cross-sectional survey, we examined selected lifestyle factors, more specifically sleep patterns, weight management, nutrition, physical activity, mental [...] Read more.
This study investigated lifestyle factors among Hungarian and international students, utilizing lifestyle medicine principles to enhance overall well-being. Conducted at the University of Debrecen through a cross-sectional survey, we examined selected lifestyle factors, more specifically sleep patterns, weight management, nutrition, physical activity, mental well-being, and alcohol use. Hungarian (N = 122) and international (N = 139) students were compared, revealing significant differences. Hungarian students slept less (p = 0.041), desired weight loss (p = 0.040), ate more fruits and vegetables (p = 0.014), exercised longer (p = 0.002), and reported higher purpose and social support (p = 0.009), with higher alcohol use (p < 0.001). These findings highlight distinct experiences and challenges faced by these student groups including variations in sleep, weight management, diet, exercise, and social support. Targeted interventions and tailored support are essential to address their specific needs. To promote the well-being of both Hungarian and international students, educational programs addressing various facets of a healthy lifestyle are crucial. This study offers valuable insights into lifestyle factors and health outcomes among Hungarian and international students and underscores the importance of addressing the unique needs of each group through tailored interventions. Full article
9 pages, 210 KiB  
Article
The Prevalence of Duplicate Prescription of Oral Antibiotic Drugs in Outpatient Care among People Insured by Corporate Health Insurance Societies in Japan
by Kenichi Fujimoto and Shinichi Tanihara
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111150 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Inappropriate antimicrobial use is a global problem, especially because the use of antimicrobials in excess of appropriate doses is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance. Duplicate prescriptions are an issue contributing to inappropriate antimicrobial use. This study aimed to analyse antibiotic prescriptions during a [...] Read more.
Inappropriate antimicrobial use is a global problem, especially because the use of antimicrobials in excess of appropriate doses is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance. Duplicate prescriptions are an issue contributing to inappropriate antimicrobial use. This study aimed to analyse antibiotic prescriptions during a specific month to examine the frequency of outpatients receiving duplicate antibiotic prescriptions and the associated determinants. Utilizing the Japan Medical Data Centre health insurance claim database, we retrospectively identified 527,110 insured individuals with at least one medicine prescription in October 2014. Data regarding age, gender, antibiotic drug usage, and health insurance status were extracted. Duplicate prescriptions entailed a patient receiving two or more prescriptions of systemic antibiotics from multiple facilities within one month. The risk factors for duplicate antibiotic prescriptions were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Of the total sample, 131,709 individuals (25.0%) received antibiotics, and 24,529 of these individuals (18.6%) had duplicate prescriptions. Third-generation cephalosporins accounted for the largest proportion of prescriptions (37.4%). Duplicate prescriptions were significantly associated with sex, age, medical facilities, and health insurance status. These findings could help to identify patients at risk of duplicate antibiotic prescriptions, highlighting the need to promote proper antimicrobial use in both patients and medical professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Policy)
27 pages, 2542 KiB  
Perspective
Epistemological Flexibility in Person-Centered Care: The Cynefin Framework for (Re)Integrating Indigenous Body Representations in Manual Therapy
by Rafael Zegarra-Parodi, Giandomenico D’Alessandro, Francesca Baroni, Jaris Swidrovich, Lewis Mehl-Madrona, Travis Gordon, Luigi Ciullo, Emiliano Castel and Christian Lunghi
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111149 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 1340
Abstract
Background: Chiropractic, osteopathy, and physiotherapy (COP) professionals regulated outside the United States traditionally incorporate hands-on procedures aligned with their historical principles to guide patient care. However, some authors in COP research advocate a pan-professional, evidence-informed, patient-centered approach to musculoskeletal care, emphasizing hands-off management [...] Read more.
Background: Chiropractic, osteopathy, and physiotherapy (COP) professionals regulated outside the United States traditionally incorporate hands-on procedures aligned with their historical principles to guide patient care. However, some authors in COP research advocate a pan-professional, evidence-informed, patient-centered approach to musculoskeletal care, emphasizing hands-off management of patients through education and exercise therapy. The extent to which non-Western sociocultural beliefs about body representations in health and disease, including Indigenous beliefs, could influence the patient–practitioner dyad and affect the interpretation of pillars of evidence-informed practice, such as patient-centered care and patient expectations, remains unknown. Methods: our perspective paper combines the best available evidence with expert insights and unique viewpoints to address gaps in the scientific literature and inform an interdisciplinary readership. Results: A COP pan-professional approach tends to marginalize approaches, such as prevention-oriented clinical scenarios traditionally advocated by osteopathic practitioners for patients with non-Western sociocultural health assumptions. The Cynefin framework was introduced as a decision-making tool to aid clinicians in managing complex clinical scenarios and promoting evidence-informed, patient-centered, and culturally sensitive care. Conclusion: Epistemological flexibility is historically rooted in osteopathic care, due to his Indigenous roots. It is imperative to reintroduce conceptual and operative clinical frameworks that better address contemporary health needs, promote inclusion and equality in healthcare, and enhance the quality of manual therapy services beyond COP’s Western-centered perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chronic Care)
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15 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Social and Economic Determinants of Life Expectancy at Birth in Eastern Europe
by Viorel Țarcă, Elena Țarcă and Mihaela Moscalu
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111148 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Life expectancy at birth is considered a parameter of the social development, health system, or economic development of a country. We aimed to investigate the effects of GDP per capita (as the economic factor), health care expenditure, the number of medical doctors (as [...] Read more.
Life expectancy at birth is considered a parameter of the social development, health system, or economic development of a country. We aimed to investigate the effects of GDP per capita (as the economic factor), health care expenditure, the number of medical doctors (as social factors), and CO2 emissions (as the environmental factor) on life expectancy. We used panel data analysis for 13 Eastern European countries over the 2000–2020 period. After performing the analysis, we used a cross-country fixed-effects panel (GLS with SUR weights). According to our model, a one percent increase in health expenditure (as % of GDP) increases life expectancy at birth by 0.376 years, whereas each additional medical doctor per 10,000 inhabitants increases life expectancy at birth by 0.088 years on average. At the same time, each additional 10,000 USD per capita each year would increase life expectancy at birth by 1.8 years on average. If CO2 emissions increase by 1 metric ton per capita, life expectancy at birth would decrease by 0.24 years, suggesting that higher carbon emissions are capable of reducing longevity. Every European country has to make special efforts to increase the life expectancy of its inhabitants by applying economic and health policies focused on the well-being of the population. Full article
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8 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Major Thoracic Trauma
by Maria Chiara Sibilia, Federica Danuzzo, Francesca Spinelli, Enrico Mario Cassina, Lidia Libretti, Emanuele Pirondini, Federico Raveglia, Antonio Tuoro, Luca Bertolaccini, Stefano Isgro’, Stefano Perrone, Stefania Rizzo and Francesco Petrella
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111147 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 315
Abstract
Background: Major thoracic trauma represents a life-threatening condition, requiring a prompt multidisciplinary approach and appropriate pathways for effective recovery. While acute morbidity and mortality are well-known outcomes in thoracic-traumatized patients, long-term quality of life in patients surviving surgical treatment has not been widely [...] Read more.
Background: Major thoracic trauma represents a life-threatening condition, requiring a prompt multidisciplinary approach and appropriate pathways for effective recovery. While acute morbidity and mortality are well-known outcomes in thoracic-traumatized patients, long-term quality of life in patients surviving surgical treatment has not been widely investigated before. Methods: Between November 2016 and November 2023, thirty-two consecutive patients were operated on because of thoracic trauma. Age, sex, comorbidities, location and extent of thoracic trauma, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Organ Injury Scale (OIS), intra and extrathoracic organ involvement, mechanism of injury, type of surgical procedure, postoperative complications, ICU and total length of stay, immediate clinical outcomes and long-term quality of life—by using the EQ-5D-3L scale and Numeric Rate Pain Score (NPRS)—were collected for each patient Results: Results indicated no significant difference in EQOL.5D3L among patients with thoracic trauma based on AIS (p = 0.55), but a significant difference was observed in relation to ISS (p = 0.000011). Conclusions: ISS is correlated with the EQOL.5D3L questionnaire on long-term quality of life, representing the best prognostic factor—in terms of long-term quality of life—in patients surviving major thoracic trauma surgical treatment. Full article
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14 pages, 519 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Effectiveness of Coordinated Care in the Management of Pharmacotherapy of Patients with Hypertension and Comorbidities in Primary Care—Preliminary Reports
by Aleksandra Galic, Anna Tyranska-Fobke, Aleksandra Kuich, Andrzej Zapasnik and Marlena Robakowska
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111146 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
Hypertension (HTN) is the dominant cause of cardiovascular disease and premature death worldwide. Also in Poland, the number of people with HTN is steadily increasing. In order to improve care for patients with HTN and other chronic diseases, a pilot of the POZ [...] Read more.
Hypertension (HTN) is the dominant cause of cardiovascular disease and premature death worldwide. Also in Poland, the number of people with HTN is steadily increasing. In order to improve care for patients with HTN and other chronic diseases, a pilot of the POZ PLUS coordinated-care model was introduced. The pilot ran from 1 July 2018 to 30 September 2021 at 47 facilities nationwide. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of this model of care. The study focused on the management of pharmacotherapy in patients with hypertension and other comorbidities. The study included a group of 90 patients with HTN. Fifty-nine people were in the coordinated-care study group and 31 in the control group. Data were collected from electronic medical records. The analysis showed a trend toward greater blood-pressure reduction in patients under coordinated care (−4 mmHg difference in systolic blood pressure between the second and first visits and −2 mmHg difference in diastolic pressure between the second and first visits, p = 0.180 and p = 0.156). This suggests the preliminary conclusion that coordinated care in the PCP plus model might have positively affected the outcomes of patients with HTN. Further studies on the subject are planned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Prevention and Care for Cardiovascular Diseases)
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13 pages, 515 KiB  
Review
Radiologists’ Communicative Role in Breast Cancer Patient Management: Beyond Diagnosis
by Luciano Mariano, Luca Nicosia, Adriana Sorce, Filippo Pesapane, Veronica Coppini, Roberto Grasso, Dario Monzani, Gabriella Pravettoni, Giovanni Mauri, Massimo Venturini, Maria Pizzamiglio and Enrico Cassano
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111145 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
In the landscape of cancer treatment, particularly in the realm of breast cancer management, effective communication emerges as a pivotal factor influencing patient outcomes. This article delves into the nuanced intricacies of communication skills, specifically spotlighting the strategies embraced by breast radiologists. By [...] Read more.
In the landscape of cancer treatment, particularly in the realm of breast cancer management, effective communication emerges as a pivotal factor influencing patient outcomes. This article delves into the nuanced intricacies of communication skills, specifically spotlighting the strategies embraced by breast radiologists. By examining the ramifications of communication on patient experience, interdisciplinary collaboration, and legal ramifications, this study underscores the paramount importance of empathetic and comprehensive communication approaches. A special emphasis is placed on the utilization of the SPIKES protocol, a structured method for conveying sensitive health information, and the deployment of strategies for navigating challenging conversations. Furthermore, the work encompasses the significance of communication with caregivers, the integration of artificial intelligence, and the acknowledgement of patients’ psychological needs. By adopting empathetic communication methodologies and fostering multidisciplinary collaboration, healthcare practitioners have the potential to enhance patient satisfaction, promote treatment adherence, and augment the overall outcomes within breast cancer diagnosis. This paper advocates for the implementation of guidelines pertaining to psychological support and the allocation of sufficient resources to ensure the provision of holistic and patient-centered cancer care. The article stresses the need for a holistic approach that addresses patients’ emotional and psychological well-being alongside medical treatment. Through thoughtful and empathetic communication practices, healthcare providers can profoundly impact patient experiences and breast cancer journeys in a positive manner. Full article
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12 pages, 764 KiB  
Article
Comparing Actual and Rounded Serum Creatinine Concentration for Assessing the Accuracy of Vancomycin Dosing in Elderly Patients: A Single-Center Retrospective Study
by Rawan Bukhari, Hani Hasan, Doaa Aljefri, Rawan Rambo, Ghusun AlSenaini, Yahya A. Alzahrani and Abdullah M. Alzahrani
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111144 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Prescribers often face the challenge of predicting creatinine clearance (CrCl) in elderly patients who are 65 years or older and have serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations below 1 mg/dL. Studies have shown that utilizing rounded SCr would underestimate CrCl in this population, which could [...] Read more.
Prescribers often face the challenge of predicting creatinine clearance (CrCl) in elderly patients who are 65 years or older and have serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations below 1 mg/dL. Studies have shown that utilizing rounded SCr would underestimate CrCl in this population, which could lead to the under-dosing of some medications like vancomycin. The current study aimed to compare the accuracy of vancomycin dosing using actual SCr versus rounded SCr to 1 mg/dL in elderly patients. A total of 245 patients were included. The therapeutic trough level (10–20 mg/L) was achieved in 138 (56.3%) patients using actual SCr. Sub-therapeutic (<10 mg/L) and supra-therapeutic (>20 mg/L) trough levels were observed in 32 (13.1%) and 75 (30.6%) patients, respectively. The predictive performance of different vancomycin doses based on actual SCr and rounded SCr compared to the targeted maintenance dose (TMD) showed a stronger correlation of dosing based on actual SCr with TMD (r = 0.55 vs. 0.31) compared to rounded SCr dosing; both doses showed similar precision, with ranges of ±552 mg/day for the dosing based on actual SCr and ±691 mg/day for the dosing based on rounded SCr. Furthermore, the dosing based on actual SCr showed a lower error percentage (69%) and a higher accuracy rate (57.6%) within ±10% of the TMD compared to the dosing based on rounded SCr, which had an error percentage of (92.3%) and an accuracy rate of (40%). The prevalence of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity (VAN) was seen in 44 (18%) patients. Patients between 75 and 84 years of age, those who were bedridden, and those with vancomycin trough concentrations greater than 20 mg/L had a higher risk of developing VAN. In conclusion, in elderly patients, estimating vancomycin dosing based on actual SCr was more accurate compared to rounded SCr to 1 mg/dL. The efficacy of vancomycin could be negatively affected by rounding up SCr, which could underestimate CrCl and result in the under-dosing of vancomycin. Full article
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22 pages, 507 KiB  
Article
Basic Conditions for Support of Young Carers in School: A Secondary Analysis of the Perspectives of Young Carers, Parents, Teachers, and Counselors
by Steffen Kaiser, Steffen Siegemund-Johannsen, Gisela C. Schulze and Anna-Maria Spittel
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1143; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111143 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Young carers face a variety of challenges at school. While schools can be vital places of support, the assistance they receive at school often seems selective and fails to consider the unique life situations of individual students. This paper examines the perspective of [...] Read more.
Young carers face a variety of challenges at school. While schools can be vital places of support, the assistance they receive at school often seems selective and fails to consider the unique life situations of individual students. This paper examines the perspective of multiple actors in the student’s school environment and explores how schools can develop comprehensive, sustainable support systems for young carers—systems that consider and involve as many actors as possible in the student’s school environment. In a secondary analysis of two interview studies, we analyzed how young carers as well as their parents, teachers, and school counsellors perceived the school support the carers received. We then developed an integrated model that incorporates these differing perspectives. The model offers an approach for implementing low-threshold support for young carers within existing school structures in relation to their family situation and outlines conditions that can support both recognized and “invisible” young carers, as well as other students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Young Carers—Education and Support)
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13 pages, 1369 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Risk of Normal Weight Obesity in Korean Women across Generations: A Study on Body Composition and Physical Fitness
by Yeong-Hyun Cho, Hyuk Sakong, Myung-Jin Oh and Tae-Beom Seo
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1142; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111142 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Normal weight obesity (NWO) refers to a condition in which the body mass index falls within the normal range, but the percent of body fat is excessive. Although there are reports of a high prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in NWO, analyses [...] Read more.
Normal weight obesity (NWO) refers to a condition in which the body mass index falls within the normal range, but the percent of body fat is excessive. Although there are reports of a high prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in NWO, analyses regarding physical fitness have been lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the age-related prevalence of NWO and to examine physical fitness across generations. Our study utilized a dataset comprising 119,835 participants for analysis. The prevalence of NWO across ages was examined using cross-tabulation analysis. For body composition and physical fitness, medians and group differences were assessed by generation through Kruskal–Wallis and Bonferroni post hoc tests. Additionally, univariate logistic regression was adopted to analyze the odds ratio. The prevalence of NWO in Korean women was 18.3%. The fat-free mass of the NWO group was consistently lower than that of both the group with normal body mass indexes (Normal) and obese body mass indexes (Obesity) across all generations. Additionally, the waist circumference and blood pressure were greater in the now group than in the Normal group. When considering maximal strength, muscle endurance, power, balance, and coordination, the NWO group exhibited lower levels compared to the Normal group. The NWO group showed lower muscle mass than both the Normal and Obesity groups, resulting in significantly reduced physical fitness compared to that of the Normal group, similar to the Obesity group. This condition may increase not only the risk of posing a potentially more serious health concern than obesity but also the risk of falls in elderly people. Therefore, based on this study, it is crucial to not only define obesity using BMI criteria but also to diagnose NWO. Public health policies and preventive measures must be implemented accordingly. Full article
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12 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
Access, Readiness and Willingness to Engage in Allied Health Telerehabilitation Services for Adults: Does Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Make a Difference?
by Clarice Y. Tang, Andisheh Bastani, Balwinder Sidhu, Golsa Saberi and Elise Baker
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1141; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111141 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 331
Abstract
Telerehabilitation is an appealing service delivery option for optimising recovery. Internationally, the equity of telerehabilitation services for people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds has been questioned. Using a 31-item survey, our study explored the access, readiness and willingness of 260 patients [...] Read more.
Telerehabilitation is an appealing service delivery option for optimising recovery. Internationally, the equity of telerehabilitation services for people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds has been questioned. Using a 31-item survey, our study explored the access, readiness and willingness of 260 patients receiving allied health services from a large tertiary health service located in Sydney, Australia, to use telerehabilitation for adults. Overall, 72% patients reported having access to technology, 38% met our readiness criteria and 53% reported willingness to engage in telerehabilitation. There were no differences in access, readiness and willingness to engage in telerehabilitation between patients from CALD and non-CALD backgrounds. Age was the only factor that influenced access (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), readiness (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.98) and willingness (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.00) to engage in telerehabilitation. Past experience of telerehabilitation was related to willingness (OR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.55–4.79) but not access (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 0.87 to 3.68) or readiness (OR = 1.90, 95% CI 0.93 to 3.87). Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring positive patient experiences to promote ongoing willingness to use telerehabilitation. Efforts are needed to improve patients’ digital health literacy, especially patients from older age groups, to ensure equitable engagement in telerehabilitation services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Telerehabilitation for Optimising Recovery)
10 pages, 223 KiB  
Article
Association of Pre-Operative Hyponatraemia with Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Non-Urgent Degenerative Spine Surgery, a Retrospective Study
by Nizar Algarni, Yousef Marwan, Rakan Bokhari, Anas Nooh, Abdullah Addar, Abdullah Alshammari, Musab Alageel and Michael H. Weber
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111140 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Hyponatraemia increases the morbidity and mortality risks of orthopaedic patients. When undergoing spine surgery, hyponatraemic patients have high risks of pneumonia and of staying in hospital for up to 1 day longer compared with non-hyponatraemic patients. This study aims to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Hyponatraemia increases the morbidity and mortality risks of orthopaedic patients. When undergoing spine surgery, hyponatraemic patients have high risks of pneumonia and of staying in hospital for up to 1 day longer compared with non-hyponatraemic patients. This study aims to assess the occurrence of adverse events among patients with pre-operative hyponatraemia after undergoing lumbar surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients who underwent spinal surgery in 2011 to 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariate analysis was conducted to demonstrate the difference in post-operative complication rates between hyponatraemic patients and normonatraemic patients. Post-operative adverse events, need for blood transfusion and length of stay were considered as clinical outcome data. Results: A total of 58,049 patients were included; pre-operatively, 55,012 (94.8%) were normonatraemic and 3037 (5.2%) were hyponatraemic. Multivariate analysis showed that hyponatraemic patients had higher rates of adverse events, blood transfusions and urinary tract infections. Specifically, 632 (20.8%) hyponatraemic patients developed adverse events, compared with 6821 (12.4%) normonatraemic patients; the hyponatraemic patients received transfusions, compared with 6821 (7.4%) normonatraemic patients; and 97 (3.2%) hyponatraemic patients developed urinary tract infections, compared with 715 (1.3%) normonatraemic patients. Finally, an extended length of stay beyond 6 days occurred in 604 (19.9%) hyponatraemic patients, compared with 4676 (8.5%) normonatraemic patients. Conclusions: Our study identified an association between pre-operative hyponatraemia and post-operative adverse events in spinal surgery patients. However, it is unclear whether hyponatraemia caused the higher adverse event rate. Full article
10 pages, 237 KiB  
Review
Psychometric Properties of Chosen Scales Evaluating Disability in Low Back Pain—Narrative Review
by Bartosz Chmielewski and Maciej Wilski
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111139 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 194
Abstract
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common disabling conditions. This disability significantly reduces the quality of life of LBP patients. This article reviews the most common and well-known measures currently used to assess disability in LBP, such as the Oswestry [...] Read more.
Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common disabling conditions. This disability significantly reduces the quality of life of LBP patients. This article reviews the most common and well-known measures currently used to assess disability in LBP, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS), the Low Back Outcome Score (LBOS), and the Low Back Pain Rating Scale (LBPRS). To reliably evaluate questionnaires and other measurement methods, there are parameters known as psychometric properties, which consist primarily of the validity, reliability and sensitivity. These methods are based on a multi-item questionnaire assessing physical functioning that is completed independently by the patient. They can be used to assess the disability associated with many conditions. All are specific to LBP, and their psychometric properties have been tested on a relevant population of patients with the condition and published in peer-reviewed publications. Full article
8 pages, 492 KiB  
Communication
An Overview of Opioid Prescription Patterns among Non-Opioid Users Following Emergency Department Admission
by Miriam Zeino, Romain Léguillon, Pauline Brevet, Baptiste Gerard, Catherine Chenailler, Johanna Raymond, Lucas Bibaut, Sophie Pouplin, Luc Marie Joly, Rémi Varin and Eric Barat
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111138 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 246
Abstract
The evolving landscape of opioid prescription practices necessitates a comprehensive understanding of emerging patterns, particularly among new opioid users discharged from emergency departments. This study delves into the intricate realm of opioid utilization by elucidating the prevalence of their prescriptions. A retrospective analysis [...] Read more.
The evolving landscape of opioid prescription practices necessitates a comprehensive understanding of emerging patterns, particularly among new opioid users discharged from emergency departments. This study delves into the intricate realm of opioid utilization by elucidating the prevalence of their prescriptions. A retrospective analysis of electronic health records was conducted, including a cohort of 71 patients who received opioid prescriptions upon discharge from emergency departments from 1 January 2022 to 30 June 2022. Demographic characteristics and prescription details were systematically examined. This study illuminates tramadol’s prominence, with 84% of prescriptions and a Defined Daily Dose (DDD) morphine equivalent of 60 mg, as the primary choice as a new opioid, a finding that draws attention due to the closely aligned dosages with morphine equivalents. This discovery prompts a critical reassessment of tramadol’s therapeutic role, considering its multifaceted nature encompassing serotonergic effects and heightened fall risks. This study advocates for a nuanced and vigilant approach to tramadol prescription, cognizant of its potential risks and therapeutic implications, and highlights the imperative of optimizing data quality and traceability within electronic health records to enhance patient care and facilitate future research endeavors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain Management Practice and Research)
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25 pages, 1194 KiB  
Review
Pharmacists’ Role in Global TB Elimination: Practices, Pitfalls, and Potential
by Alina Cernasev, Jonathan Stillo, Jolie Black, Mythili Batchu, Elaina Bell and Cynthia A. Tschampl
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111137 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is the top infectious killer in the world despite efforts to eliminate it. Pharmaceutical care roles are pillars of pharmacy practice, and pharmacists are well equipped to serve a unique role in the pathway to provide education about TB. Previous systematic [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the top infectious killer in the world despite efforts to eliminate it. Pharmaceutical care roles are pillars of pharmacy practice, and pharmacists are well equipped to serve a unique role in the pathway to provide education about TB. Previous systematic reviews emphasize pharmacists’ role in treating TB; however, pharmacists can and do play much broader roles in overall TB elimination efforts. Five researchers searched five electronic databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, and Embase). Search terms included pharmacy, pharmacist, tuberculosis, antitubercular agents, supply, distribution, and drug therapy. Inclusion criteria were studies published from 2010 through March 2023, in English or Spanish, addressed a specific TB-related role for pharmacists/pharmacies, and were peer-reviewed. Exclusion criteria included pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials on drug efficacy, and editorials. Two researchers conducted each level of review; for discordance, a third researcher reviewed, and a decision was reached by consensus. Roles were extracted and cross-referenced with traditional pharmaceutical care steps. Of the initial 682 hits, 133 were duplicates. After further review, we excluded 514 records, leaving 37 articles for full extraction. We found nine roles for pharmacists in TB prevention and classified them as implemented, not implemented, or recommended. These roles were: (1) TB symptom screening; (2) Referring to TB care systems; (3) TB testing; (4) Dispensing TB medication correctly and/or directly observed therapy; (5) Counseling; (6) Looking to reduce socioeconomic barriers; (7) Procurement of TB medications; (8) Quality assurance of TB medications; (9) Maintaining and using pharmacy data systems. Pharmacists are well situated to play a vital role in the global fight against TB. Findings suggested pharmacists in many settings have already expanded their roles related to TB elimination beyond traditional pharmaceutical care. Still others need to increase the understanding of TB procurement and treatment, their power to improve TB care, and their contributions to data systems that serve population health. Pharmacy curricula should increase TB-related training to better equip future pharmacists to contribute to TB elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist-Led Interventions in Public Health: A Global Perspective)
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10 pages, 377 KiB  
Article
Exercise, Dietary Habits, and Defecatory Dysfunction in Patients Living with Colorectal Cancer: A Preliminary Quantitative Study
by Hiromi Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Sasai, Yoshimi Kato, Shinobu Matsumoto and Kiyoji Tanaka
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111136 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 314
Abstract
This study investigated the association of exercise and dietary habits with defecatory dysfunction in patients living with colorectal cancer. We recruited 61 adult patients who had undergone surgery within the past 20 years and attended outpatient clinics at designated cancer hospitals in Japan. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the association of exercise and dietary habits with defecatory dysfunction in patients living with colorectal cancer. We recruited 61 adult patients who had undergone surgery within the past 20 years and attended outpatient clinics at designated cancer hospitals in Japan. Defecatory dysfunction was defined as any symptom caused by issues with colon and anal function, including fecal incontinence, evacuation difficulties, frequent stools, diarrhea, and constipation. Exercise and dietary habits were assessed via a quantitative questionnaire survey. Postoperative defecatory dysfunction occurred in all the patients. Multivariate analysis revealed no association between exercise habits and defecatory dysfunction; however, dietary fiber intake ≥4 times a week was associated with frequent stools (adjusted odds ratio, 5.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.10, 23.70). These findings suggest a need to alleviate defecatory dysfunction by improving one’s dietary habits. Interventions aimed at alleviating defecatory dysfunction by improving the dietary habits in patients living with colorectal cancer are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care for Cancer Patients: Second Edition)
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40 pages, 494 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Social Isolation and Physical Health in Adults
by Deborah Witt Sherman, Alliete Rodriguez Alfano, Fernando Alfonso, Carmen R. Duque, Daniella Eiroa, Yamile Marrero, Teresa Muñecas, Erica Radcliffe-Henry, Ana Rodriguez and Chelsea L. Sommer
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111135 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Background: According to the World Health Organization, social isolation, particularly of older adults, is a public health issue endangering the well-being of individuals, families, and communities. Social isolation affects health through biological, behavioral, and psychological pathways and is associated with physical and psychological/emotional [...] Read more.
Background: According to the World Health Organization, social isolation, particularly of older adults, is a public health issue endangering the well-being of individuals, families, and communities. Social isolation affects health through biological, behavioral, and psychological pathways and is associated with physical and psychological/emotional well-being, increases morbidity and mortality rates, and lowers quality of life. Purpose: This systematic review examined the relationship between social isolation and physical health, including subjective and objective dimensions, and factors that influence this relationship in adults. Methods: This systematic review examined six electronic databases covering the field of health and human services and included results from 1 January 2017 to 10 March 2023 with key terms including adult social connection or social isolation coupled with health, physical, psychological, emotional, mental, or behavioral. The initial search yielded 925 research articles across all databases and was narrowed to 710 when the decision was made to focus on social isolation and physical health. Covidence was used throughout the retrieval and appraisal process, as provided in a PRISMA flow diagram. Twenty-four studies that scored 90 or above in the appraisal process were included in the systematic review. Results: The studies represented included seven studies conducted in the United States and seventeen studies conducted internationally. Regarding study design, twenty-three studies were quantitative, one was qualitative, and one was mixed methods. The majority of quantitative studies were correlational in design with nine being longitudinal. The majority of studies were based on large national data sets representing in total 298,653 participants aged 50 and older. The results indicate that social isolation is related to increases in inflammatory biomarkers associated with diseases, all-cause mortality, lower expectations of longevity, and frailty. In addition, social isolation was associated with cognitive decline and disruptions in sleep. Poor oral health increased social isolation. The results further indicated that decreased physical performance/function and a decline in physical activity were associated with social isolation, as well as decreased overall physical health, poor health behaviors, and self-care, and decreased health-related quality of life. Further research is warranted to examine the possible bidirectionality of these relationships and possible mediating, moderating, or confounding variables. Implications: Future research is needed to explore the biological and behavioral pathways in which social isolation negatively impacts physical health. Going forward, studies are needed that move beyond descriptive, exploratory methods and integrate data from qualitative and mixed-method designs that will inform the development and testing of a conceptual framework related to social isolation and health. By advancing the science behind social isolation, comprehensive interventions can be identified and tested with implications at the individual, family, community, and societal levels to reduce social isolation, particularly among adults, and improve health and quality of life. Full article
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13 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Nursing Intervention to Prevent and Manage Delirium in Critically Ill Patients: A Scoping Review
by Filipa Fernandes, Mariana Santos, Ana Margarida Anacleto, Cátia Jerónimo, Óscar Ferreira and Cristina Lavareda Baixinho
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111134 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome of multifactorial etiology with a high incidence in people admitted to intensive care units. In addition to reversible impairment of cognitive processes, it may be associated with changes in thinking and perception. If, in the past, it [...] Read more.
Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome of multifactorial etiology with a high incidence in people admitted to intensive care units. In addition to reversible impairment of cognitive processes, it may be associated with changes in thinking and perception. If, in the past, it was considered an expected complication of severe disease, nowadays, delirium is associated with a poor short-term and long-term prognosis. Knowing that its prevention and early identification can reduce morbidity, mortality, and health costs, it is vital to investigate nursing interventions focused on delirium in critically ill patients. This study aimed to identify nursing interventions in the prevention and management of delirium in critically ill adults. The method used to answer the research question was a scoping review. The literature search was performed in the Medline (via PubMed), CINAHL (via EBSCOhost), Scopus, Web of Science, and JBI databases. The final sample included 15 articles. Several categories of non-pharmacological interventions were identified, addressing the modifiable risk factors that contribute to the development of delirium, and for which nurses have a privileged position in their minimization. No drug agent can, by itself, prevent or treat delirium. However, psychoactive drugs are justified to control hyperactive behaviors through cautious use. Early diagnosis, prevention, or treatment can reduce symptoms and improve the individual’s quality of life. Therefore, nursing professionals must ensure harmonious coordination between non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symptoms and Experiences of Patients after Intensive Care)
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18 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Attributions of Loneliness—Life Story Interviews with Older Mental Health Service Users
by Annette Burns, Gerard Leavey, Brian Lawlor, Jeannette Golden, Dermot Reilly and Roger O’Sullivan
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111133 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 418
Abstract
There is growing evidence on the prevalence and impact of loneliness, particularly among older people. However, much less is known about the personal origins of loneliness and how it persists, or not, over an individual’s life course. This study aimed to increase understanding [...] Read more.
There is growing evidence on the prevalence and impact of loneliness, particularly among older people. However, much less is known about the personal origins of loneliness and how it persists, or not, over an individual’s life course. This study aimed to increase understanding of the personal experiences of loneliness among older adults across the life course. Central to this study was giving voice to the participants and allowing them to define loneliness, what it meant to them, and how it affected them throughout their lives. This qualitative study employed 18 life story interviews with older adults attending a mental health service. We explored their personal experiences of loneliness and the situations and factors associated with loneliness across the life course. We identified three distinct typologies of loneliness: those who experienced (1) chronic loneliness since childhood, (2) chronic loneliness after a life-changing event in midlife, and (3) loneliness which remained situational/transitional, never becoming chronic. This study found the seeds of chronic life course loneliness are often determined in childhood. Early detection and intervention may prevent situational loneliness from becoming chronic. More research is needed from a life course approach to help understand and address the causes and consequences of loneliness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Aging and Care in the Global Communities: Models & Challenges)
13 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
Utilizing Telemedicine Applications in Celiac Disease and Other Gluten-Free-Diet-Dependent Conditions: Insights from the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Motti Haimi and Aaron Lerner
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111132 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Background: Globally, approximately 1.4% of people have celiac disease (CD), induced by gluten sensitivity. If left untreated, it causes small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy, which can result in failure to thrive, anemia, osteoporosis, malabsorption, and even malignancy. The only treatment option available [...] Read more.
Background: Globally, approximately 1.4% of people have celiac disease (CD), induced by gluten sensitivity. If left untreated, it causes small intestinal inflammation and villous atrophy, which can result in failure to thrive, anemia, osteoporosis, malabsorption, and even malignancy. The only treatment option available is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Few studies have looked at the role and perception of telehealth in relation to CD and selective nutrition both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: Our goal was to screen and investigate the research conducted both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic concerning the utilization of telehealth applications and solutions in CD and other GFD-dependent circumstances. Methods: We employed a narrative review approach to explore articles that were published in scholarly journals or organizations between the years 2000 and 2024. Only English-language publications were included. PubMed and Google Scholar searches were mainly conducted using the following keywords: telemedicine, telehealth, telecare, eHealth, m-health, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, celiac disease, and gluten-free diet (GFD). Manual searches of the references in the acquired literature were also carried out, along with the authors’ own personal contributions of their knowledge and proficiency in this field. Results: Only a few studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 outbreak examined the viewpoints and experiences of adult patients with CD with relation to in-person clinic visits, as well as other options such as telehealth. The majority of patients believed that phone consultations were appropriate and beneficial. Video conferencing and telemedicine became more popular during the COVID-19 pandemic, demonstrating the effectiveness of using these technologies for CD on a global basis. In recent years, urine assays for gluten identification have become accessible for use at home. These tests could be helpful for CD monitoring with telemedicine assistance. Conclusions: The extended knowledge gathered from the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to complement pre-COVID-19 data supporting the usefulness of telemedicine even after the emergent pandemic, encouraging its wider adoption in standard clinical practice. The monitoring and follow-up of CD patients and other GFD-dependent conditions can greatly benefit from telemedicine. Full article
14 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Physical Activity Knowledge and Personal Habits with Recommendations for Patients: Self-Assessment by Primary Care Physicians
by Vilija Bitė Fominienė, Martirija Fominaitė and Saulė Sipavičienė
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111131 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Primary care physicians (PCPs) should be active and reliable promoters of physical activity (PA), but there is no strong evidence that their knowledge and personal habits contribute to this. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of PA recommendations provided [...] Read more.
Primary care physicians (PCPs) should be active and reliable promoters of physical activity (PA), but there is no strong evidence that their knowledge and personal habits contribute to this. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of PA recommendations provided by PCPs to patients in terms of their self-assessed PA knowledge and personal habits. This study used a cross-sectional design and data were collected through a self-reported online questionnaire. The study sample consisted of 202 PCPs from a large Lithuanian city, Kaunas, of which 122 were females (60.4%) and 80 were males (39.6%). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 29 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) for Windows. The findings show that the frequency of recommendations related to providing PA to patients is statistically significantly dependent on PCP health-friendly or partially favorable PA habits, their self-assessed level of knowledge about physical activity, and their self-assessed competence related to providing PA recommendations to patients, but this is not statistically dependent on objectively assessed level of knowledge related to PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Physical Activity on Psychological Function and Health)
11 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Smoking and Depression among Medical School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from Turkey’s Largest Province
by Bahar Ürün Ünal and Kamile Marakoğlu
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111130 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Background: To examine the prevalence of smoking among medical faculty students in Turkey, and to explore the associations between smoking, depression, and other factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among medical students in Konya, Turkey, from November 2018 to February 2019. [...] Read more.
Background: To examine the prevalence of smoking among medical faculty students in Turkey, and to explore the associations between smoking, depression, and other factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among medical students in Konya, Turkey, from November 2018 to February 2019. The first section included eight questions pertaining to sociodemographic details. The second comprised nine questions addressing smoking and other harmful habits. The third section involved the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence while the fourth was the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results: The study was completed with a total of 1117 participants (90.2% of all students). In regard to smoking, 813 (72.78%) were non-smokers, 98 (8.77%) were ex-smokers, and 222 (19.87%) were active smokers. Notably, 16.29% of students (n = 182) had a high BDI score (≥17). Male sex, good economic status, depression diagnosis at any time in life, and alcohol use were independently associated with active smoking. Being a senior student and regular exercise were independently associated with a low (<17) BDI score, whereas depression diagnosis at any time in life and drug use were independently associated with high (≥17) BDI. Conclusions: Almost 20% of medical school students were active smokers, with about a 2.5-fold higher prevalence among males compared to females. There is a significant association between smoking frequency and symptoms of depression. Policies targeting modifiable risk factors can reduce smoking and depression among future physicians, which can have a strong impact on population-wide smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Medicine)
12 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
The Associations of Perceived Self-Efficacy with Emotional Intelligence, Personality, Resilience, and Attitudes Towards Death among Midwives
by Evangelos Tzamakos, Dimitra Metallinou, Maria Tigka, Aikaterini Lykeridou, Antigoni Sarantaki and Christina Nanou
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111129 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Midwives’ self-efficacy can significantly affect the provided care and, therefore, maternal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations of perceived self-efficacy with emotional intelligence, personality, resilience, and attitudes towards death among midwives in Greece. From 2020 to [...] Read more.
Midwives’ self-efficacy can significantly affect the provided care and, therefore, maternal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of the present study was to investigate associations of perceived self-efficacy with emotional intelligence, personality, resilience, and attitudes towards death among midwives in Greece. From 2020 to 2022, a total of 348 midwives were recruited in this descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants were employed as independent professionals, in public hospitals or regional health authorities. Data collection involved five research instruments: the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC), and the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) scale. The mean score for the GSES was 29.1 (SD = 4.2), suggesting a moderately elevated level of self-efficacy among midwives. The results revealed that higher scores on the GSES were significantly associated with higher scores on the Extraversion subscale (p < 0.001) and lower scores on the Neuroticism (p < 0.001) and Lie (p = 0.002) subscales of the EPQ. Additionally, high self-efficacy was significantly correlated with high emotional intelligence (p < 0.001), high neutral acceptance of death (p = 0.009), and high resilience (p < 0.001). These findings highlight the relationship between the self-efficacy of Greek midwives and various psychological factors, as well as the multifaceted nature of self-efficacy and its importance for midwives’ psychological well-being and professional functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Midwifery Care: Improvement of Maternal and Newborn Health)
13 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
The Climate Change Worry Scale (CCWS) and Its Links with Demographics and Mental Health Outcomes in a Polish Sample
by Paweł Larionow, Magdalena Gawrych, Julia Mackiewicz, Maciej Michalak, Karolina Mudło-Głagolska, David A. Preece and Alan E. Stewart
Healthcare 2024, 12(11), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare12111128 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 302
Abstract
Developing valid and reliable measures of psychological responses to climate change is of high importance, as this facilitates our understanding of people’s psychological responses, including their pro-environmental behavior. Recently, the Climate Change Worry Scale (CCWS) was introduced. This study aimed to develop the [...] Read more.
Developing valid and reliable measures of psychological responses to climate change is of high importance, as this facilitates our understanding of people’s psychological responses, including their pro-environmental behavior. Recently, the Climate Change Worry Scale (CCWS) was introduced. This study aimed to develop the first Polish version of the CCWS and explore its psychometric properties. Our sample comprised 420 Polish adults aged 18–70, with a mean age of 26.20 (standard deviation = 10.61) years. The CCWS’s factor structure was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. McDonald’s omega and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were computed to assess internal consistency reliability. Pearson correlations between climate change worry (CCW) and experience of climate change (i.e., an individual’s level of perception of being affected by climate change), pro-environmental behavior, ill-being (i.e., anxiety and depression symptoms), and well-being were calculated. Our results support the strong factorial validity of the CCWS, conforming to its intended one-factor solution, with excellent internal consistency reliability for the total scale score (i.e., McDonald’s omega and Cronbach’s alpha values of 0.93). We noted large positive correlations between CCW and experiences of climate change, as well as pro-environmental behavior, and medium positive correlations with psychopathology symptoms. CCW scores were not associated with well-being. As the CCWS represents a measure of a specific manifestation of worry, we also examined its discriminant validity against more general psychological distress markers, and it evidenced strong validity in this regard. Overall, the Polish version of the CCWS appears to have strong psychometric properties, and will therefore be a useful tool to use in research on psychological responses to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Mental Health)
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