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Proteomes, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessReview Molecular and Physiological Study of Candida albicans by Quantitative Proteome Analysis
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Candida albicans is one of the major pathogens that cause the serious infectious condition known as candidiasis. C. albicans was investigated by proteome analysis to systematically examine its virulence factors and to promote the development of novel pharmaceuticals against candidiasis. Here, we review
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Candida albicans is one of the major pathogens that cause the serious infectious condition known as candidiasis. C. albicans was investigated by proteome analysis to systematically examine its virulence factors and to promote the development of novel pharmaceuticals against candidiasis. Here, we review quantitative time-course proteomics data related to C. albicans adaptation to fetal bovine serum, which were obtained using a nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry system equipped with a long monolithic silica capillary column. It was revealed that C. albicans induced proteins involved in iron acquisition, detoxification of oxidative species, energy production, and pleiotropic stress tolerance. Native interactions of C. albicans with macrophages were also investigated with the same proteome-analysis system. Simultaneous analysis of C. albicans and macrophages without isolating individual living cells revealed an attractive strategy for studying the survival of C. albicans. Although those data were obtained by performing proteome analyses, the molecular physiology of C. albicans is discussed and trials related to pharmaceutical applications are also examined. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Functional Overreaching in Endurance Athletes Using Proteomics
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
No reliable biomarkers exist to identify athletes in various training states including functional overreaching (FOR), non-functional overreaching (NFOR), and overtraining syndrome (OTS). Participants (N = 10, age 38.3 ± 3.4 years) served as their own controls and in random, counterbalanced order either ran/cycled
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No reliable biomarkers exist to identify athletes in various training states including functional overreaching (FOR), non-functional overreaching (NFOR), and overtraining syndrome (OTS). Participants (N = 10, age 38.3 ± 3.4 years) served as their own controls and in random, counterbalanced order either ran/cycled 2.5 h (70.0 ± 3.7% VO2max) three days in a row (FOR) or sat in the lab (rest) (separated by three weeks; 7:00–9:30 am, overnight fasted state). Participants provided fingerprick samples for dried blood spot samples (DBS) pre- and post-exercise/rest, and then during two recovery days. DBS proteins were measured with nanoLC-MS in data-independent acquisition (DIA) mode, and 593 proteins were identified and quantified. Proteins were considered for the FOR cluster if they were elevated during one of the two recovery days but not more than one of the exercise days (compared to rest). The generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to identify proteins linked to FOR. A total of 13 proteins was linked to FOR and most were associated with the acute phase response and innate immune system activation. This study used a system-wide proteomics approach to define a targeted panel of blood proteins related to FOR that could form the basis of future NFOR- and OTS-based studies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Proteomic Approaches for the Discovery of Biofluid Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Dementias
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Neurodegenerative dementias are highly complex disorders driven by vicious cycles of intersecting pathophysiologies. While most can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of disease-specific pathology in the brain at postmortem examination, clinical disease presentations often involve substantially overlapping cognitive, behavioral, and functional impairment
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Neurodegenerative dementias are highly complex disorders driven by vicious cycles of intersecting pathophysiologies. While most can be definitively diagnosed by the presence of disease-specific pathology in the brain at postmortem examination, clinical disease presentations often involve substantially overlapping cognitive, behavioral, and functional impairment profiles that hamper accurate diagnosis of the specific disease. As global demographics shift towards an aging population in developed countries, clinicians need more sensitive and specific diagnostic tools to appropriately diagnose, monitor, and treat neurodegenerative conditions. This review is intended as an overview of how modern proteomic techniques (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and advanced capture-based technologies) may contribute to the discovery and establishment of better biofluid biomarkers for neurodegenerative disease, and the limitations of these techniques. The review highlights some of the more interesting technical innovations and common themes in the field but is not intended to be an exhaustive systematic review of studies to date. Finally, we discuss clear reporting principles that should be integrated into all studies going forward to ensure data is presented in sufficient detail to allow meaningful comparisons across studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroproteomics)
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Open AccessArticle Regional Diversity in the Postsynaptic Proteome of the Mouse Brain
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
The proteome of the postsynaptic terminal of excitatory synapses comprises over one thousand proteins in vertebrate species and plays a central role in behavior and brain disease. The brain is organized into anatomically distinct regions and whether the synapse proteome differs across these
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The proteome of the postsynaptic terminal of excitatory synapses comprises over one thousand proteins in vertebrate species and plays a central role in behavior and brain disease. The brain is organized into anatomically distinct regions and whether the synapse proteome differs across these regions is poorly understood. Postsynaptic proteomes were isolated from seven forebrain and hindbrain regions in mice and their composition determined using proteomic mass spectrometry. Seventy-four percent of proteins showed differential expression and each region displayed a unique compositional signature. These signatures correlated with the anatomical divisions of the brain and their embryological origins. Biochemical pathways controlling plasticity and disease, protein interaction networks and individual proteins involved with cognition all showed differential regional expression. Combining proteomic and connectomic data shows that interconnected regions have specific proteome signatures. Diversity in synapse proteome composition is key feature of mouse and human brain structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroproteomics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Uncovering Discrete Synaptic Proteomes to Understand Neurological Disorders
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
The mammalian nervous system is an immensely heterogeneous organ composed of a diverse collection of neuronal types that interconnect in complex patterns. Synapses are highly specialized neuronal cell-cell junctions with common and distinct functional characteristics that are governed by their protein composition or
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The mammalian nervous system is an immensely heterogeneous organ composed of a diverse collection of neuronal types that interconnect in complex patterns. Synapses are highly specialized neuronal cell-cell junctions with common and distinct functional characteristics that are governed by their protein composition or synaptic proteomes. Even a single neuron can possess a wide-range of different synapse types and each synapse contains hundreds or even thousands of proteins. Many neurological disorders and diseases are caused by synaptic dysfunction within discrete neuronal populations. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis has emerged as a powerful strategy to characterize synaptic proteomes and potentially identify disease driving synaptic alterations. However, most traditional synaptic proteomic analyses have been limited by molecular averaging of proteins from multiple types of neurons and synapses. Recently, several new strategies have emerged to tackle the ‘averaging problem’. In this review, we summarize recent advancements in our ability to characterize neuron-type specific and synapse-type specific proteomes and discuss strengths and limitations of these emerging analysis strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroproteomics)
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Open AccessReview Proteomic Analysis of Histone Variants and Their PTMs: Strategies and Pitfalls
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
Epigenetic modifications contribute to the determination of cell fate and differentiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying histone variants and post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been studied in the contexts of development, differentiation, and disease. Antibody-based assays have classically been used to target PTMs, but these
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Epigenetic modifications contribute to the determination of cell fate and differentiation. The molecular mechanisms underlying histone variants and post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been studied in the contexts of development, differentiation, and disease. Antibody-based assays have classically been used to target PTMs, but these approaches fail to reveal combinatorial patterns of modifications. In addition, some histone variants are so similar to canonical histones that antibodies have difficulty distinguishing between these isoforms. Mass spectrometry (MS) has progressively developed as a powerful technology for the study of histone variants and their PTMs. Indeed, MS analyses highlighted exquisitely complex combinations of PTMs, suggesting “crosstalk” between them, and also revealed that PTM patterns are often variant-specific. Even though the sensitivity and acquisition speed of MS instruments have considerably increased alongside the development of computational tools for the study of multiple PTMs, it remains challenging to correctly describe the landscape of histone PTMs, and in particular to confidently assign modifications to specific amino acids. Here, we provide an inventory of MS-based strategies and of the pitfalls inherent to histone PTM and variant characterization, while stressing the complex interplay between PTMs and histone sequence variations. We will particularly illustrate the roles played by MS-based analyses in identifying and quantifying histone variants and modifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tools for understanding PTM crosstalk)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditorial Editorial for Special Issue: 2017 Plant Proteomics
Received: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomics 2017)
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