# Modern DC–DC Power Converter Topologies and Hybrid Control Strategies for Maximum Power Output in Sustainable Nanogrids and Picogrids—A Comprehensive Survey

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- 1
- The classification of the different control topologies of the modern DC–DC converters and an amalgamation of various MPPT approaches integrated with sustainable nanogrid and picogrid architectures for the enhancement of technoeconomic feasibility in the power sector of a country.
- 2
- The promotion of the environmental impact of solar power generation to be interfaced with grid either in standalone mode or grid-connected mode for empirical development. Statistical data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration regarding the percentage of conventional or renewable energy used in the environment is considered.
- 3
- Addressing the intermittency issue of solar power generation. A control strategy will be established by realizing maximum power point tracking, voltage and current of DC links, and q-axis by applying adaptive strategies and simulating different controllers.
- 4
- The discussion of the proposed controller with respect to smaller oscillations, less power loss, fast convergence, and the capability of following true maximum power point (MPP) under rapidly varying ambient conditions. The benefits are that it will be able to enhance the operating area of controllers; thus, it will be able to implement a more accurate signal to get optimum output from the converter as per the load requirement within the proved step response to work under the desired width.

## 2. Interfacing of Solar Power Generation

^{2}, but in truest sense, some of the radiation is diverted due to reflection, refraction, and absorption. Finally, the amount of irradiation that reaches the Earth’s surface is much lower than 1000 W/m

^{2}[20]. Solar power can be interfaced with the DC bus and then to the DC load, by employing a proper DC–DC power converter, and lastly to the AC load or utility grid via the proper arrangement of DC–AC converters, i.e., inverters [21]. Because of the intermittent nature of PV energy generation, it may not serve as a reliable, stable, controllable energy source and may not be able to provide ancillary services like a conventional energy source. To mitigate this problem, one solution is to upgrade solar power generation by incorporating an energy storage device into it. A storage device can be added to store or release energy as a buffer when necessary [2]. A block diagram is depicted in Figure 1, showing a PV source interfaced with a DC bus and an AC utility grid along with an energy storage device. In this configuration, the PV panel is interfaced with an MPPT controller in order to harvest maximum energy output during solar power generation. The MPPT controllers will providethedutycyclefortheemployedDC–DCboostconvertertoregulateitsinconsistentoutput [22].

#### 2.1. DC Nanogrid and Picogrids Architecture and Control

- The encouragement of entrepreneurship and employment in the agricultural sector due to the incorporation of new technologies, like smart irrigation, smart power management, climate control and change, waste management, etc.
- The prior objective of the Energy Policy 2020 was energy security with the advancement of sustainable energies in global supply contributions.
- A regulation called FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles) has been pioneered to promote the usage of e-mobility.
- The Smart Cities Mission established the need to involve more than 100 cities across the country in the reduction in energy consumption, the enhancement of infrastructure, the enhancement of energy efficiency, etc.
- The Government of India is planning to invest more into the implementation of EV charging infrastructure and suitable planning to integrate it into the distribution grid for the overall development of the region.

## 3. Analysis of Various MPPT Methodologies

## 4. System Description

**PV**modules that is equal to kT/q. ${\mathit{V}}_{\mathit{D}}$ is the potential of the diode.

**K**is the Boltzmann constant that is same to 1.38 × 10

^{–23}J/K. ${\mathit{T}}_{1}$ is the p-n junction temperature in Kelvin. A depicts the diode ideality factor that is dependent on

**PV**technology. ${\mathit{I}}_{\mathit{S}\mathit{C}}$ shows the short circuit current of cell at a reliable experiment condition (1000 W/m

^{2}) and 25 deg C, ${\mathit{K}}_{1}$ is the coefficient of cell’s short circuit current, ${\mathit{T}}_{\mathit{R}\mathit{e}\mathit{f}}$ is the reference temperature of the cell, ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}}$ and ${\mathit{R}}_{\mathit{s}\mathit{h}}$ represent the series and shunt configuration resistance, respectively, and

**λ**represents the intensity of solar radiation in W/m

^{2}. Table 2 shows the detailing of different configurations of

**PV**array. P–V characteristic of

**PV**array is represented in Figure 5, and

**PV**array reconfiguration structures are shown in Figure 6.

## 5. DC–DC Power Converter Topologies in Sustainable Energy System

#### 5.1. Progression of DC–DCPower Converter Topologies for Solar Power Generation

- (i)
- Low gain low power (LGLP);
- (ii)
- Low gain high power (LGHP);
- (iii)
- High gain low power (HGLP);
- (iv)
- High gain high power (HGHP).

#### 5.2. Low Power High Gain Boost DC–DCConverter Associated in PV Application

#### 5.2.1. VMC

#### 5.2.2. Voltage Doublers

#### 5.2.3. Cascading Topologies

#### Quadratic Boost

## 6. Modern DC–DC Bidirectional Converter Strategies in a Sustainable PV Architecture

#### 6.1. Bidirectional DC–DC Converter

#### 6.2. Triple Port Integrated Topology (TPIT)

- Renewable-to-grid (R2G) mode: In this mode, the power generated by the solar PV is given to the electric grid via a chopper (DC–DC converter) and then to a DC–AC converter. The bidirectional AC–DC converter works as an inverter in this mode.
- Renewable-to-vehicle (R2V) mode: In this mode, the generated PV power is used to charge the electric vehicle’s battery. The bidirectional converter allows the current flow such that the battery charges and the SOC also increase.
- Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode: In this operating mode, the electric vehicle supplies the required power to grid. This mode ensures uninterrupted supply in the system.
- Grid-to-vehicle mode: When the required power by the vehicle is not generated by solar then the grid supplies the excess power demand via this operating mode. The ac power from the grid is converted to dc via AC–DC converter and it charges the battery. SOC of the battery increases in this case.

#### 6.3. Three-Port DC–DC Converter

#### 6.4. SEPIC Converter

## 7. Conclusions and Future Research Directions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**Block diagram of PID MPPT for PV system in [33].

**Figure 6.**PV array configuration structures: (

**a**) Simple Series (SS); (

**b**) Parallel; (

**c**) Series–Parallel; (

**d**) Total Cross Tie; (

**e**) Bridge Link; and (

**f**) Honey Comb [67].

**Figure 7.**(

**a**) Classification of non-isolated DC–DC boost converter. (

**b**) Detailed classification of HGLP topology.

**Figure 8.**Basic circuitry of DC–DC boost converter with VMC [95].

**Figure 9.**Different cell topologies in VMC [106].

**Figure 10.**DC–DC boost converter in association with voltage doublers [109].

**Figure 11.**(

**A**) Dual boost converter, (

**B**) quadratic boost converter, (

**C**) mutated tri-level quadratic boost converter, and (

**D**–

**G**) multiple members of the family of quadratic boost DC–DC converter configurations [134].

**Figure 12.**Bidirectional converter [60].

**Figure 14.**Three port DC–DC converter proposed in [140].

Categorization | MPPT | Index of Performance | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Complicacy | Tracking Speed | Price | Efficiency | Certainty | Hardware Compatibility | |||

Traditional/ Conventional | Control on the basis of parametric choice | CVT | Poor | Average | Low | <85–90% | Poor | Simple |

OVT | Poor | Average | Low | <85–90% | Poor | Simple | ||

SCT | Poor | Average | Low | <85–90% | Poor | Simple | ||

CS | Poor | Poor | Medium | <85–90% | Poor | Simple | ||

Direct control | P&O | Poor | Superior | Mean | >97% | Average | Simple | |

IC | Medium | Superior | Mean | >98% | Very High | Simple | ||

RC | Medium | Superior | Mean | >96–99% | Very High | Simple | ||

PC | High | Superior | Very High | >98% | Mean | Complicated | ||

MPPT under partial shading condition | PSO | Very High | Rapid | High | >97–99% | Best | Medium | |

GWO | Very High | Average | High | >98% | Average | Simple | ||

PO-PSO | Very High | Rapid | High | >98% | Mean-low | Easy | ||

GA | Very High | Fast | Very High | >98% | High | Simple | ||

FLC-P&O | Very High | Fast | High | 98–99% | Very High | Easy | ||

Intelligent MPPT | FLC(AI) | Very High | Rapid | Very High | >99% | Mean | Simple | |

ANN(AI) | Very High | Rapid | Very High | >99% | Mean | Complicated | ||

SMC(Nonlinear) | Medium | Rapid | Very High | >99% | High | Easy |

Configuration | Strategy | Number of Switches | Gained Parameters | Remarks | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Advantages | Limitations | ||||

(a) Simple series | Series [68] | Zero | Zero | Wide application range | Poor efficacy and huge loss of power |

(b) Parallel | Parallel [69] | Zero | Zero | Wide range of application and larger output current | Low efficacy and poor output potential |

(c) Series– parallel | RPV [70] | 6-SPDT, 5-DPST, 4-DPDT | Voltage and intensity of radiation | Wide range of application | Only dual mode of transition of connectivity |

SWS [71] | 6-Switches for each SWS | Current and intensity of radiation | Better speed of convergence | Poor authenticity and high changeability | |

Adaptive [70] | $6{\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{S}\mathit{T}}$$+3{\mathit{M}}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{M}\mathit{I}\mathit{M}}+\left({\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{S}\mathit{T}}-1\right)+\left({\mathit{N}}_{\mathit{F}\mathit{M}\mathit{I}\mathit{M}}-1\right)$ | Current and intensity of radiation | Highly compatible | Existence of many switches and complex | |

IE [72] | NS | Intensity of radiation | Better speed of convergence | High volatility | |

(d) Total cross tie | DS [73] | NS | Intensity of irradiation | Superior efficacy and highly reliable | Complicated |

ZZ [74] | NS | Intensity of irradiation | Wide range of application and superior efficiency | Restricted to 3 × 3 array configuration | |

IE [75] | 24-DPST | Current, voltage, irradiance | Smaller processing and computation duration | Highly complicated and gained only three parameters | |

(e) Bridge link | [76] | NS | Intensity of irradiation | Wide range of application and lower cost | Highly complicated and lower acceptance |

(f) Honey comb | [77] | NS | Intensity of irradiation | Better stability | Complicated and lower acceptance |

Topology Number | References | Range of Potential Gain | Number of Elements | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Smallest | Highest | Smallest | Highest | ||

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 | [97,98,99,100] [101,102] [103,104,105,106] [107,108,109] [110,111] [112,113] [114,115,116] [117,118,119] [120,121,122] [123] [124] [125] [126] [127] [128] [129] [130] [131] [132] [133] | 4 [98] 9 [102] 9.45 [103] 7.89 [108] 6 [109] 4.97 [113] 5.76 [114] 8.99 [117] 8 [122] 5 [123] 5 [124] 5.89 [125] 19.5 [126] 12.59 [127] 8 [128] 10.99 [129] 8.23 [130] 9 [131] 4.85 [132] 9.43 [133] | 12 [99] 12 [101] 15.7 [105] 18.97 [109] 17 [111] 11 [112] 16.56 [116] 19.87 [119] 8.34 [120] X X X X X X X 9 9.46 [133] 9.43 [132] 15 [133] | 13 10 11 7 7 9 8 6 13 7 14 7 11 12 13 7 7 13 8 11 | 18 20 22 12 14 16 18 17 19 X X X X X X X 14 18 25 13 |

Topology | Count of Elements | Potential Stress on Switch | Optimum Efficacy | Potential Gain | Frequency (kHz) | Power (W) | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

L | C | S | D | Sum | ||||||

VMC | 4 | 3 | 2 | 5 | 14 | ${\mathit{V}}_{\mathit{o}\mathit{u}\mathit{t}}/2\left(\mathit{n}+1\right)$ | 97.2% | 15.6 | 50 | 400 |

Voltage doublers | 2 | 3 | 2 | 4 | 11 | ${\mathit{V}}_{\mathit{o}\mathit{u}\mathit{t}}/2$ | 93% | 15.83 | 100 | 500 |

Cascading techniques | 2 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 11 | N/A | 95.6% | 20 | 45.5 | 280 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ganguly, A.; Biswas, P.K.; Sain, C.; Ustun, T.S.
Modern DC–DC Power Converter Topologies and Hybrid Control Strategies for Maximum Power Output in Sustainable Nanogrids and Picogrids—A Comprehensive Survey. *Technologies* **2023**, *11*, 102.
https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11040102

**AMA Style**

Ganguly A, Biswas PK, Sain C, Ustun TS.
Modern DC–DC Power Converter Topologies and Hybrid Control Strategies for Maximum Power Output in Sustainable Nanogrids and Picogrids—A Comprehensive Survey. *Technologies*. 2023; 11(4):102.
https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11040102

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ganguly, Anupama, Pabitra Kumar Biswas, Chiranjit Sain, and Taha Selim Ustun.
2023. "Modern DC–DC Power Converter Topologies and Hybrid Control Strategies for Maximum Power Output in Sustainable Nanogrids and Picogrids—A Comprehensive Survey" *Technologies* 11, no. 4: 102.
https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies11040102