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Article

Climate Impact Mitigation Potential of European Air Traffic in a Weather Situation with Strong Contrail Formation †

1
Institute of Air Transportation Systems, Hamburg University of Technology, 21079 Hamburg, Germany
2
German Aerospace Center, Air Transportation Systems, 21079 Hamburg, Germany
3
German Aerospace Center, Earth-System-Modelling, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82334 Wessling, Germany
4
Section Aircraft Noise and Climate Effects, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2628 HS Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our abstract published at 3rd ECATS Conference, Virtual Conference, 13–15 October 2020.
Academic Editor: Alexei Sharpanskykh
Aerospace 2021, 8(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020050
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2021 / Accepted: 8 February 2021 / Published: 12 February 2021
Air traffic contributes to anthropogenic global warming by about 5% due to CO2 emissions and non-CO2 effects, which are primarily caused by the emission of NOx and water vapor as well as the formation of contrails. Since—in the long term—the aviation industry is expected to maintain its trend to grow, mitigation measures are required to counteract its negative effects upon the environment. One of the promising operational mitigation measures that has been a subject of the EU project ATM4E is climate-optimized flight planning by considering algorithmic climate change functions that allow for the quantification of aviation-induced climate impact based on the emission’s location and time. Here, we describe the methodology developed for the use of algorithmic climate change functions in trajectory optimization and present the results of its application to the planning of about 13,000 intra-European flights on one specific day with strong contrail formation over Europe. The optimization problem is formulated as bi-objective continuous optimal control problem with climate impact and fuel burn being the two objectives. Results on an individual flight basis indicate that there are three major classes of different routes that are characterized by different shapes of the corresponding Pareto fronts representing the relationship between climate impact reduction and fuel burn increase. On average, for the investigated weather situation and traffic scenario, a climate impact reduction in the order of 50% can be achieved by accepting 0.75% of additional fuel burn. Higher mitigation gains would only be available at much higher fuel penalties, e.g., a climate impact reduction of 76% associated with a fuel penalty of 12.8%. However, these solutions represent much less efficient climate impact mitigation options. View Full-Text
Keywords: air traffic management; climate impact reduction; eco-efficient trajectories; optimal control air traffic management; climate impact reduction; eco-efficient trajectories; optimal control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lührs, B.; Linke, F.; Matthes, S.; Grewe, V.; Yin, F. Climate Impact Mitigation Potential of European Air Traffic in a Weather Situation with Strong Contrail Formation. Aerospace 2021, 8, 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020050

AMA Style

Lührs B, Linke F, Matthes S, Grewe V, Yin F. Climate Impact Mitigation Potential of European Air Traffic in a Weather Situation with Strong Contrail Formation. Aerospace. 2021; 8(2):50. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020050

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lührs, Benjamin, Florian Linke, Sigrun Matthes, Volker Grewe, and Feijia Yin. 2021. "Climate Impact Mitigation Potential of European Air Traffic in a Weather Situation with Strong Contrail Formation" Aerospace 8, no. 2: 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace8020050

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