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Aqueous and Ethanolic Plant Extracts as Bio-Insecticides—Establishing a Bridge between Raw Scientific Data and Practical Reality

1
cE3c—Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group & Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Azores, Rua Mãe de Deus, 9501-321 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
2
LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paula Baptista
Plants 2021, 10(5), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050920 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 21 April 2021 / Accepted: 30 April 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Insecticides 2020-2021)
Global demand for food production is causing pressure to produce faster and bigger crop yields, leading to a rampant use of synthetical pesticides. To combat the nefarious consequences of its uses, a search for effective alternatives began in the last decades and is currently ongoing. Nature is seen as the main source of answers to crop protection problems, supported by several examples of plants/extracts used for this purpose in traditional agriculture. The literature reviewed allowed the identification of 95 plants whose extracts exhibit insecticide activity and can be used as bio-pesticides contributing to sustainable agriculture. The option for ethanol and/or water extracts is more environmentally friendly and resorts to easily accessible solvents, which can be reproduced by farmers themselves. This enables a bridge to be established between raw scientific data and a more practical reality. Azadirachta indica, Capsicum annuum, Nicotiana tabacum and Tagetes erecta are the most researched plants and have the potential to be viable options in the pest management approach. Azadirachta indica showed the most promising results and Brevicoryne brassicae was the most targeted pest species, being tested against the aqueous and/or ethanolic extracts of 23 different plants. Maceration using dried material (usually leaves) is the extraction method preferred by the majority of authors. View Full-Text
Keywords: bio-insecticides; aqueous extracts; ethanolic extracts; plant extracts; crop pest management; Azadirachta indica; Capsicum annuum; Nicotiana tabacum; Tagetes erecta bio-insecticides; aqueous extracts; ethanolic extracts; plant extracts; crop pest management; Azadirachta indica; Capsicum annuum; Nicotiana tabacum; Tagetes erecta
MDPI and ACS Style

Tavares, W.R.; Barreto, M.d.C.; Seca, A.M.L. Aqueous and Ethanolic Plant Extracts as Bio-Insecticides—Establishing a Bridge between Raw Scientific Data and Practical Reality. Plants 2021, 10, 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050920

AMA Style

Tavares WR, Barreto MdC, Seca AML. Aqueous and Ethanolic Plant Extracts as Bio-Insecticides—Establishing a Bridge between Raw Scientific Data and Practical Reality. Plants. 2021; 10(5):920. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050920

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tavares, Wilson R.; Barreto, Maria d.C.; Seca, Ana M.L. 2021. "Aqueous and Ethanolic Plant Extracts as Bio-Insecticides—Establishing a Bridge between Raw Scientific Data and Practical Reality" Plants 10, no. 5: 920. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050920

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