Next Article in Journal
Deeper Insights on Cnesmone javanica Blume Leaves Extract: Chemical Profiles, Biological Attributes, Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking
Next Article in Special Issue
Phenotypic Diversity and Productivity of Medicago sativa Subspecies from Drought-Prone Environments in Mediterranean Type Climates
Previous Article in Journal
Oenothera laciniata Hill Extracts Exhibits Antioxidant Effects and Attenuates Melanogenesis in B16-F10 Cells via Downregulating CREB/MITF/Tyrosinase and Upregulating p-ERK and p-JNK
Previous Article in Special Issue
Small “Nested” Introgressions from Wild Thinopyrum Species, Conferring Effective Resistance to Fusarium Diseases, Positively Impact Durum Wheat Yield Potential
Article

Exploring the Loci Responsible for Awn Development in Rice through Comparative Analysis of All AA Genome Species

1
Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan
2
Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
3
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
4
STAY GREEN Co., Ltd., 2-1-5 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0818, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rosalyn B. Angeles-Shim and Viktor Korzun
Plants 2021, 10(4), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040725
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
Wild rice species have long awns at their seed tips, but this trait has been lost through rice domestication. Awn loss mitigates harvest and seed storage; further, awnlessness increases the grain number and, subsequently, improves grain yield in Asian cultivated rice, highlighting the contribution of the loss of awn to modern rice agriculture. Therefore, identifying the genes regulating awn development would facilitate the elucidation of a part of the domestication process in rice and increase our understanding of the complex mechanism in awn morphogenesis. To identify the novel loci regulating awn development and understand the conservation of genes in other wild rice relatives belonging to the AA genome group, we analyzed the chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSL). In this study, we compared a number of CSSL sets derived by crossing wild rice species in the AA genome group with the cultivated species Oryza sativa ssp. japonica. Two loci on chromosomes 7 and 11 were newly discovered to be responsible for awn development. We also found wild relatives that were used as donor parents of the CSSLs carrying the functional alleles responsible for awn elongation, REGULATOR OF AWN ELONGATION 1 (RAE1) and RAE2. To understand the conserveness of RAE1 and RAE2 in wild rice relatives, we analyzed RAE1 and RAE2 sequences of 175 accessions among diverse AA genome species retrieved from the sequence read archive (SRA) database. Comparative sequence analysis demonstrated that most wild rice AA genome species maintained functional RAE1 and RAE2, whereas most Asian rice cultivars have lost either or both functions. In addition, some different loss-of-function alleles of RAE1 and RAE2 were found in Asian cultivated species. These findings suggest that different combinations of dysfunctional alleles of RAE1 and RAE2 were selected after the speciation of O. sativa, and that two-step loss of function in RAE1 and RAE2 contributed to awnlessness in Asian cultivated rice. View Full-Text
Keywords: AA genome; awn; chromosome segment substitution lines; rice; wild species AA genome; awn; chromosome segment substitution lines; rice; wild species
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bessho-Uehara, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Takashi, T.; Makino, T.; Yasui, H.; Yoshimura, A.; Ashikari, M. Exploring the Loci Responsible for Awn Development in Rice through Comparative Analysis of All AA Genome Species. Plants 2021, 10, 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040725

AMA Style

Bessho-Uehara K, Yamagata Y, Takashi T, Makino T, Yasui H, Yoshimura A, Ashikari M. Exploring the Loci Responsible for Awn Development in Rice through Comparative Analysis of All AA Genome Species. Plants. 2021; 10(4):725. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040725

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bessho-Uehara, Kanako, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Tomonori Takashi, Takashi Makino, Hideshi Yasui, Atsushi Yoshimura, and Motoyuki Ashikari. 2021. "Exploring the Loci Responsible for Awn Development in Rice through Comparative Analysis of All AA Genome Species" Plants 10, no. 4: 725. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040725

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop