While visual appearances play a main role in recognizing the concepts captured in images, additional information can provide complementary information for fine-grained image recognition, where concepts with similar visual appearances such as species of birds need to be distinguished. Especially for recognizing geospatial concepts
, which are observed only at specific places, geographical locations of the images can improve the recognition accuracy. However, such geo-aware fine-grained image recognition requires prior information about the visual and geospatial features of each concept or the training data composed of high-quality images for each concept associated with correct geographical locations. By using a large number of images photographed in various places and described with textual tags which can be collected from image sharing services such as Flickr, this paper proposes a method for constructing a geospatial concept graph which contains the necessary prior information for realizing the geo-aware fine-grained image recognition, such as a set of visually recognizable fine-grained geospatial concepts, their visual and geospatial features, and the coarse-grained representative visual concepts whose visual features can be transferred to several fine-grained geospatial concepts. Leveraging the information from the images captured by many people can automatically extract diverse types of geospatial concepts with proper features for realizing efficient and effective geo-aware fine-grained image recognition.
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