The arid valley is a unique type of ecological fragile landscape in the Hengduan Mountain Area, China. The boundary of the arid valley is one of the response indicators to mountainous climate change. Based on the meteorological data from 1999 to 2013 and the SPOT remote sensing images in 1999 and 2013 this study explored the response characteristics of the arid valley boundary to regional climate change in the upper reaches of the Min River in the Hengduan Mountains. The results are as follows: (1) During 1999–2013, the temperature, precipitation, and evaporation increased, and the sunshine duration and relative humidity showed decreasing trends at the rates of 0.008 °C/a, 2.25 mm/a, 5.51 mm/a, −8.72 h/a, and −0.19%/a, respectively. Meanwhile, the climate showed the warm-dry tendency in the southern region and the warm-humid tendency in the central and northern areas. (2) On the whole, the arid valley boundary mainly distributed between 1601–3200 m and moved downward to 2428 m at the speed of −0.76 ± 0.26 m/a along with global warming. The descent speeds in different regions showed the same decreasing order as the regional distributions of precipitation and sunshine duration. (3) The arid valley boundary’s displacement in the whole basin had significant negative correlations with current climate change (p
< 0.05), as well as with variations of moisture factors. Additionally, with the enhancements of the drought degree and humidity tendency, the variations of temperature, evaporation, and relative humidity, respectively, became the main factors that had significant correlations with the arid valley boundary’s displacement. Therefore, climate change during 1999–2013 shows beneficial effects on the improvement of the arid valley habitat in the upper reaches of the Min River. The study provides a new method and gives basic data for research on climate change.
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