Next Article in Journal
Integrating Geospatial Techniques for Urban Land Use Classification in the Developing Sub-Saharan African City of Lusaka, Zambia
Previous Article in Journal
Validation of Spatial Prediction Models for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping by Considering Structural Similarity
Open AccessArticle

A Dynamic Indoor Field Model for Emergency Evacuation Simulation

State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing (LIESMARS), Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
Faculty of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Technology, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
Henan University of Urban Construction, Pingdingshan 467036, China
School of Resources and Environment, University of Electric Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(4), 104;
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
PDF [4486 KB, uploaded 4 April 2017]


Indoor emergency response plays a critically important role in disaster management for cities, which must consider the evacuation of people in a dynamic indoor environment. The spatial model is the foundation for the specific analysis of indoor emergency responses, such as evacuations. The current spatial model for evacuation has three primary pitfalls: (1) it primarily focuses on static spatial information, such as rooms, doors, and windows, and lacks dynamic information, such as events and sensors; (2) it mainly focuses on the horizontal space and the static scene and lacks a multi-story component that considers the different properties of stairs compared to planar areas; and (3) it places emphasis on the indoor navigation calculation with a 2D/3D network, which lacks individual properties that can support more complicated analysis, such as congestion and stagnation. In this paper, we propose a dynamic indoor field model with three typical characteristics. (1) It includes not only static information but also dynamic information, such as outdoor and indoor building geometry, sensors, fire spread, and personnel behavior. (2) It supports multi-story buildings from the macro level (building level and floor level) to the micro level (room level and individual level) based on horizontal and vertical indoor space. (3) It supports spatial calculations based on a three-dimensional space grid and can analyze potential congestion and stagnation during evacuation. We design a corresponding evacuation method that supports individual evacuation route finding and evacuation assessment. We perform a series of analyses of the applicability of the proposed model and the efficiency of the designed evacuation method based on multi-story evacuation studies. The simulation includes a total evacuation population exceeding 7000 individuals, and the analysis suggests that the new model and algorithm are effective in planning indoor emergency routes that avoid potential congestion or stagnation. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor evacuation; data model; 3D GIS; CityGML; emergency response indoor evacuation; data model; 3D GIS; CityGML; emergency response

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Du, Z.; Zhu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Niu, L.; Li, Y.; Zhou, Y. A Dynamic Indoor Field Model for Emergency Evacuation Simulation. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6, 104.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. EISSN 2220-9964 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top