Next Article in Journal
The Interrelationships between Intestinal Permeability and Phlegm Syndrome and Therapeutic Potential of Some Medicinal Herbs
Next Article in Special Issue
Hormonal Regulation of Oligodendrogenesis II: Implications for Myelin Repair
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of Exopolysaccharides Production by Porphyridium sordidum and Their Potential to Induce Defense Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana against Fusarium oxysporum
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hormonal Regulation of Mammalian Adult Neurogenesis: A Multifaceted Mechanism
Review

Hormonal Regulation of Oligodendrogenesis I: Effects across the Lifespan

1
Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
3
Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
4
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
5
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON M5G 1M1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
§
Current address: Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.
Academic Editor: Elizabeth D. Kirby
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020283
Received: 13 January 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormonal Regulation of Neurogenesis in Adults)
The brain’s capacity to respond to changing environments via hormonal signaling is critical to fine-tuned function. An emerging body of literature highlights a role for myelin plasticity as a prominent type of experience-dependent plasticity in the adult brain. Myelin plasticity is driven by oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs). OPC differentiation regulates the trajectory of myelin production throughout development, and importantly, OPCs maintain the ability to proliferate and generate new OLs throughout adulthood. The process of oligodendrogenesis, the creation of new OLs, can be dramatically influenced during early development and in adulthood by internal and environmental conditions such as hormones. Here, we review the current literature describing hormonal regulation of oligodendrogenesis within physiological conditions, focusing on several classes of hormones: steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. We discuss hormonal regulation at each stage of oligodendrogenesis and describe mechanisms of action, where known. Overall, the majority of hormones enhance oligodendrogenesis, increasing OPC differentiation and inducing maturation and myelin production in OLs. The mechanisms underlying these processes vary for each hormone but may ultimately converge upon common signaling pathways, mediated by specific receptors expressed across the OL lineage. However, not all of the mechanisms have been fully elucidated, and here, we note the remaining gaps in the literature, including the complex interactions between hormonal systems and with the immune system. In the companion manuscript in this issue, we discuss the implications of hormonal regulation of oligodendrogenesis for neurological and psychiatric disorders characterized by white matter loss. Ultimately, a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of hormonal regulation of oligodendrogenesis across the entire lifespan, especially in vivo, will progress both basic and translational research. View Full-Text
Keywords: oligodendrogenesis; hormones; mechanisms; steroids; peptides oligodendrogenesis; hormones; mechanisms; steroids; peptides
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Long, K.L.P.; Breton, J.M.; Barraza, M.K.; Perloff, O.S.; Kaufer, D. Hormonal Regulation of Oligodendrogenesis I: Effects across the Lifespan. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020283

AMA Style

Long KLP, Breton JM, Barraza MK, Perloff OS, Kaufer D. Hormonal Regulation of Oligodendrogenesis I: Effects across the Lifespan. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(2):283. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Long, Kimberly L.P., Jocelyn M. Breton, Matthew K. Barraza, Olga S. Perloff, and Daniela Kaufer. 2021. "Hormonal Regulation of Oligodendrogenesis I: Effects across the Lifespan" Biomolecules 11, no. 2: 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020283

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop