Next Article in Journal
Quantum Complexity and Chaos in Young Black Holes
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Highly Irradiated ALPIDE Silicon Sensors
Previous Article in Special Issue
Matter Growth in Imperfect Fluid Cosmology
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Cosmic Inflation, Quantum Information and the Pioneering Role of John S Bell in Cosmology

Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
Universe 2019, 5(4), 92;
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
PDF [2690 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]

Simple Summary

I discuss whether a signature of the quantum origin of large scale structures observed in our Universe can be found.


According to the theory of cosmic inflation, the large scale structures observed in our Universe (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, Cosmic Background Microwave—CMB—anisotropy…) are of quantum mechanical origin. They are nothing but vacuum fluctuations, stretched to cosmological scales by the cosmic expansion and amplified by gravitational instability. At the end of inflation, these perturbations are placed in a two-mode squeezed state with the strongest squeezing ever produced in Nature (much larger than anything that can be made in the laboratory on Earth). This article studies whether astrophysical observations could unambiguously reveal this quantum origin by borrowing ideas from quantum information theory. It is argued that some of the tools needed to carry out this task have been discussed long ago by J. Bell in a, so far, largely unrecognized contribution. A detailled study of his paper and of the criticisms that have been put forward against his work is presented. Although J. Bell could not have realized it when he wrote his letter since the quantum state of cosmological perturbations was not yet fully characterized at that time, it is also shown that Cosmology and cosmic inflation represent the most interesting frameworks to apply the concepts he investigated. This confirms that cosmic inflation is not only a successful paradigm to understand the early Universe. It is also the only situation in Physics where one crucially needs General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics to derive the predictions of a theory and, where, at the same time, we have high-accuracy data to test these predictions, making inflation a playground of utmost importance to discuss foundational issues in Quantum Mechanics. View Full-Text
Keywords: cosmology; inflation; quantum mechanics cosmology; inflation; quantum mechanics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martin, J. Cosmic Inflation, Quantum Information and the Pioneering Role of John S Bell in Cosmology. Universe 2019, 5, 92.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Universe EISSN 2218-1997 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top