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Article

A Phantom Investigation to Quantify Huygens Principle Based Microwave Imaging for Bone Lesion Detection

1
School of Engineering, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, UK
2
UBT-Umbria Bioengineering Technologies, Spin off of University of Perugia, 06081 Assisi, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(12), 1505; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121505
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Electromagnetic Waves)
This paper demonstrates the outcomes of a feasibility study of a microwave imaging procedure based on the Huygens principle for bone lesion detection. This study has been performed using a dedicated phantom and validated through measurements in the frequency range of 1–3 GHz using one receiving and one transmitting antenna in free space. Specifically, a multilayered bone phantom, which is comprised of cortical bone and bone marrow layers, was fabricated. The identification of the lesion’s presence in different bone layers was performed on images that were derived after processing through Huygens’ principle, the S21 signals measured inside an anechoic chamber in multi-bistatic fashion. The quantification of the obtained images was carried out by introducing parameters such as the resolution and signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR). The impact of different frequencies and bandwidths (in the 1–3 GHz range) in lesion detection was investigated. The findings showed that the frequency range of 1.5–2.5 GHz offered the best resolution (1.1 cm) and SCR (2.22 on a linear scale). Subtraction between S21 obtained using two slightly displaced transmitting positions was employed to remove the artefacts; the best artefact removal was obtained when the spatial displacement was approximately of the same magnitude as the dimension of the lesion. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave imaging; phantom measurement system; bone lesion detection microwave imaging; phantom measurement system; bone lesion detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khalesi, B.; Sohani, B.; Ghavami, N.; Ghavami, M.; Dudley, S.; Tiberi, G. A Phantom Investigation to Quantify Huygens Principle Based Microwave Imaging for Bone Lesion Detection. Electronics 2019, 8, 1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121505

AMA Style

Khalesi B, Sohani B, Ghavami N, Ghavami M, Dudley S, Tiberi G. A Phantom Investigation to Quantify Huygens Principle Based Microwave Imaging for Bone Lesion Detection. Electronics. 2019; 8(12):1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121505

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khalesi, Banafsheh, Behnaz Sohani, Navid Ghavami, Mohammad Ghavami, Sandra Dudley, and Gianluigi Tiberi. 2019. "A Phantom Investigation to Quantify Huygens Principle Based Microwave Imaging for Bone Lesion Detection" Electronics 8, no. 12: 1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8121505

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