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Article

Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Hen Egg Consumption on the Inflammatory Biomarkers and Microvascular Function in Patients with Acute and Chronic Coronary Syndrome—A Randomized Study

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Scientific Center of Excellence for Personalized Health Care, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital Vinkovci, HR-32100 Vinkovci, Croatia
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Department of Rheumatology, Clinical Immunology and Allergology, Osijek University Hospital, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department for Cardiovascular Disease, Osijek University Hospital, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Pathophysiology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Nursing and Palliative Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, Osijek University Hospital, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to the manuscript/equally contributing authors.
Academic Editors: Helena Lenasi, Markos Klonizakis, Henrique Silva and Pasquale Pagliaro
Biology 2021, 10(8), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080774
Received: 23 May 2021 / Revised: 29 July 2021 / Accepted: 10 August 2021 / Published: 14 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microcirculation in Health and Disease)
There is a strong potential of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) consumption to reduce cardiovascular risk and prevent adverse outcomes in existing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to test the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation in the form of enriched hen eggs on serum lipid and free fatty acid profiles, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and microvascular reactivity in patients with acute and chronic coronary artery disease. Consumption of three n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs for three weeks had a favorable effect on serum free fatty acid profile (a lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio) and mild anti-inflammatory effects but did not significantly affect microvascular reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease. Because consumption of both regular and n-3 PUFA eggs had no negative effects on any of the measured biological and functional vascular parameters, the results of the present study indicate that eggs can be safely consumed in the daily diet of patients with coronary artery disease.
This study aimed to test the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched hen egg consumption on serum lipid and free fatty acid profiles, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and microvascular reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty CAD patients participated in this study. Of those, 20 patients had acute CAD (Ac-CAD), and 20 patients had chronic CAD (Ch-CAD). The control group (N = 20) consumed three regular hen eggs/daily (249 mg n-3 PUFAs/day), and the n-3 PUFAs group (N = 20) consumed three n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs/daily (1053 g n-3 PUFAs/day) for 3 weeks. Serum n-3 PUFA concentration significantly increased (in all CAD patients), while LDL cholesterol and IL-6 (in Ac-CAD patients), and hsCRP and IL-1a (in all CAD patients) significantly decreased in the n-3 PUFAs group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity significantly decreased, and forearm skin microvascular reactivity in response to vascular occlusion (postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH)) remained unchanged in both the n-3 PUFAs and control groups in total CAD, Ac-CAD, and Ch-CAD patients. Potentially, n-3 PUFA-enriched hen eggs can change the free fatty acid profile to a more favorable lower n6/n3 ratio, and to exhibit mild anti-inflammatory effects but not to affect microvascular reactivity in CAD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; functional food; coronary artery disease; inflammation; oxidative stress; microcirculation n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; functional food; coronary artery disease; inflammation; oxidative stress; microcirculation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ćurić, Ž.B.; Masle, A.M.; Kibel, A.; Selthofer-Relatić, K.; Stupin, A.; Mihaljević, Z.; Jukić, I.; Stupin, M.; Matić, A.; Kozina, N.; Šušnjara, P.; Juranić, B.; Kolobarić, N.; Šerić, V.; Drenjančević, I. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Hen Egg Consumption on the Inflammatory Biomarkers and Microvascular Function in Patients with Acute and Chronic Coronary Syndrome—A Randomized Study. Biology 2021, 10, 774. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080774

AMA Style

Ćurić ŽB, Masle AM, Kibel A, Selthofer-Relatić K, Stupin A, Mihaljević Z, Jukić I, Stupin M, Matić A, Kozina N, Šušnjara P, Juranić B, Kolobarić N, Šerić V, Drenjančević I. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Hen Egg Consumption on the Inflammatory Biomarkers and Microvascular Function in Patients with Acute and Chronic Coronary Syndrome—A Randomized Study. Biology. 2021; 10(8):774. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080774

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ćurić, Željka B., Ana M. Masle, Aleksandar Kibel, Kristina Selthofer-Relatić, Ana Stupin, Zrinka Mihaljević, Ivana Jukić, Marko Stupin, Anita Matić, Nataša Kozina, Petar Šušnjara, Brankica Juranić, Nikolina Kolobarić, Vatroslav Šerić, and Ines Drenjančević. 2021. "Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Hen Egg Consumption on the Inflammatory Biomarkers and Microvascular Function in Patients with Acute and Chronic Coronary Syndrome—A Randomized Study" Biology 10, no. 8: 774. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080774

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