This work reviewed innovative wood surface treatments based on nanotechnology. It is well documented in the literature that the cell walls of wood present significant porosity; this porosity is on a molecular scale. The main reason for the use of nanotechnology in wood science and technology is the unique characteristic of nano-based materials to effectively penetrate deeply into wood substrates, which, in turns, results in the alteration of their surface chemistry. This subsequently causes an improvement in wood properties. Any potential change in the wood properties due to treatment with nanomaterials is based on the higher interfacial area which is developed due to the treatment. This occurs because the number of particles is significantly reduced to the nanoscale. The nanomaterials improve the properties of wood as a raw material and alter its original features to a limited extent. However, their potential impact on both health and the environment should be addressed by applying tools such as life-cycle assessments. This will avoid mistakes being made in which new technologies are released on the market prior to an impact assessment having been carried out.
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