Next Article in Journal
Preparation of Nanofibrous PVDF Membrane by Solution Blow Spinning for Mechanical Energy Harvesting
Previous Article in Journal
Fully Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Computation of Physico-Mechanical Properties of PB, PS, and SBS
Open AccessArticle

Tangeretin-Assisted Platinum Nanoparticles Enhance the Apoptotic Properties of Doxorubicin: Combination Therapy for Osteosarcoma Treatment

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081089
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 25 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 29 July 2019
  |  
PDF [6180 KB, uploaded 30 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of cancer and the most frequent malignant bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. Nanomedicine has become an indispensable field in biomedical and clinical research, with nanoparticles (NPs) promising to increase the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug against OS; however, it causes severe side effects that restrict its clinical applications. Here, we investigated whether combining platinum NPs (PtNPs) and DOX could increase their anticancer activity in human bone OS epithelial cells (U2OS). PtNPs with nontoxic, effective, thermally stable, and thermoplasmonic properties were synthesized and characterized using tangeretin. We examined the combined effects of PtNPs and DOX on cell viability, proliferation, and morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, protein carbonyl content, antioxidants, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) level, apoptotic and antiapoptotic gene expression, oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, and DNA repair genes. PtNPs and DOX significantly inhibited U2OS viability and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, increasing lactate dehydrogenase leakage, ROS generation, and malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and carbonylated protein levels. Mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed by reduced MMP, decreased ATP levels, and upregulated apoptotic/downregulated antiapoptotic gene expression. Oxidative stress was a major cause of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, confirmed by decreased levels of various antioxidants. Furthermore, PtNPs and DOX increased 8-oxo-dG and 8-oxo-G levels and induced DNA damage and repair gene expression. Combination of cisplatin and DOX potentially induce apoptosis comparable to PtNPs and DOX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the combined effects of PtNPs and DOX in OS. View Full-Text
Keywords: platinum nanoparticles; doxorubicin; oxidative stress; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; apoptosis; DNA damage platinum nanoparticles; doxorubicin; oxidative stress; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; apoptosis; DNA damage
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gurunathan, S.; Jeyaraj, M.; Kang, M.-H.; Kim, J.-H. Tangeretin-Assisted Platinum Nanoparticles Enhance the Apoptotic Properties of Doxorubicin: Combination Therapy for Osteosarcoma Treatment. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1089.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top