Tangeretin-Assisted Platinum Nanoparticles Enhance the Apoptotic Properties of Doxorubicin: Combination Therapy for Osteosarcoma Treatment
AbstractOsteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of cancer and the most frequent malignant bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. Nanomedicine has become an indispensable field in biomedical and clinical research, with nanoparticles (NPs) promising to increase the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug against OS; however, it causes severe side effects that restrict its clinical applications. Here, we investigated whether combining platinum NPs (PtNPs) and DOX could increase their anticancer activity in human bone OS epithelial cells (U2OS). PtNPs with nontoxic, effective, thermally stable, and thermoplasmonic properties were synthesized and characterized using tangeretin. We examined the combined effects of PtNPs and DOX on cell viability, proliferation, and morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, protein carbonyl content, antioxidants, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) level, apoptotic and antiapoptotic gene expression, oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, and DNA repair genes. PtNPs and DOX significantly inhibited U2OS viability and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, increasing lactate dehydrogenase leakage, ROS generation, and malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and carbonylated protein levels. Mitochondrial dysfunction was confirmed by reduced MMP, decreased ATP levels, and upregulated apoptotic/downregulated antiapoptotic gene expression. Oxidative stress was a major cause of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, confirmed by decreased levels of various antioxidants. Furthermore, PtNPs and DOX increased 8-oxo-dG and 8-oxo-G levels and induced DNA damage and repair gene expression. Combination of cisplatin and DOX potentially induce apoptosis comparable to PtNPs and DOX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the combined effects of PtNPs and DOX in OS. View Full-Text
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Gurunathan, S.; Jeyaraj, M.; Kang, M.-H.; Kim, J.-H. Tangeretin-Assisted Platinum Nanoparticles Enhance the Apoptotic Properties of Doxorubicin: Combination Therapy for Osteosarcoma Treatment. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1089.
Gurunathan S, Jeyaraj M, Kang M-H, Kim J-H. Tangeretin-Assisted Platinum Nanoparticles Enhance the Apoptotic Properties of Doxorubicin: Combination Therapy for Osteosarcoma Treatment. Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(8):1089.Chicago/Turabian Style
Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeyaraj, Muniyandi; Kang, Min-Hee; Kim, Jin-Hoi. 2019. "Tangeretin-Assisted Platinum Nanoparticles Enhance the Apoptotic Properties of Doxorubicin: Combination Therapy for Osteosarcoma Treatment." Nanomaterials 9, no. 8: 1089.
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