C-reactive protein (CRP) is a very important biomarker of infection and inflammation for a number of diseases. Routine CRP measurements with high sensitivity and reliability are highly relevant to the assessment of states of inflammation and the efficacy of treatment intervention, and require the development of very sensitive, selective, fast, robust and reproducible assays. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are distinguished for their unique electrical and optical properties and the ability to conjugate with biomolecules. Au NP-based probes have attracted considerable attention in the last decade in the analysis of biological samples due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and selectivity. Thus, this article aims to be a critical and constructive analysis of the literature of the last three years regarding the advances made in the development of bioanalytical assays based on gold nanoparticles for the in vitro detection and quantification of C-reactive protein from biological samples. Current methods for Au NP synthesis and the strategies for surface modification aiming at selectivity towards CRP are highlighted.
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