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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020122

Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes

1
Department of Basic Sciences, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P. O. Box 2375, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, C/Federico Garcia Lorca No. 18, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract

The influence of calcination time on the phase transformation and crystallization kinetics of anodized titania nanotube arrays was studied using in-situ isothermal and non-isothermal synchrotron radiation diffraction from room temperature to 900 °C. Anatase first crystallized at 400 °C, while rutile crystallized at 550 °C. Isothermal heating of the anodized titania nanotubes by an increase in the calcination time at 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, and 650 °C resulted in a slight reduction in anatase abundance, but an increase in the abundance of rutile because of an anatase-to-rutile transformation. The Avrami equation was used to model the titania crystallization mechanism and the Arrhenius equation was used to estimate the activation energies of the titania phase transformation. Activation energies of 22 (10) kJ/mol for the titanium-to-anatase transformation, and 207 (17) kJ/mol for the anatase-to-rutile transformation were estimated. View Full-Text
Keywords: titania; anatase; rutile; anodization; synchrotron radiation diffraction titania; anatase; rutile; anodization; synchrotron radiation diffraction
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Albetran, H.; Vega, V.; Prida, V.M.; Low, I.-M. Dynamic Diffraction Studies on the Crystallization, Phase Transformation, and Activation Energies in Anodized Titania Nanotubes. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 122.

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