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Article

Investigation of Hybrid Methods for Elimination of Brilliant Blue Dye from Water Phase Using Various Nanomaterials Combined with Activated Sludge and Duckweed

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Environmental and Geodetic Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, 75-453 Koszalin, Poland
2
Faculty of Geoengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Varsha Srivastava and Weiming Zhang
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(7), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071747
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 29 June 2021 / Published: 2 July 2021
The main goal of this experimental work is screening of different natural and synthetic nanomaterials and biopolymers that may improve elimination of stable micropollutants from water phase. In this work, as a target chemical acting as the micropollutant molecule, the Brilliant Blue (BB) dye was selected. We tested different active matrices dispersed in water phase including activated carbon (AC), lyophilized graphene oxide (GO), β-cyclodextrin (CD), raw dandelion pappus (DP), microcrystalline cellulose(MC), and raw pine pollen (PP), as well as two types of Egyptian Blue mineral pigments (EB1 and EB2). Graphene oxide and Egyptian Blue nanomaterials were synthesized in our laboratory. We investigated potential application of such nanoparticles and biopolymer conglomerates as additives that may tune the activated sludge (AS) microorganisms or duckweed water plant (DW) and increase efficiency of micropollutants removal from wastewater. Studied nanomaterials/biopolymers were used in two different experimental modes involving real activated sludge microorganisms (24 h experiment) as well as duckweed plant (16 day experiment). Quantitative data of BB were obtained using microfluidic type device based on micro-TLC plate. This approach enabled direct determination of target component without sample pre-treatment like pre-concentration or pre-purification. Within single analytical run calibration line, retention standard spots (methyl red) and multiple samples were analyzed simultaneously. Due to the multivariate nature of these experiments, quantitative data were explored with chemometric tools including AHC (agglomerative hierarchical clustering), PCA (principal component analysis), and FA (factor analysis). Experimental data and multivariate calculations revealed that BB is strongly resistant on biodegradation, however, inclusion complexes formation with β-cyclodextrinmay induce degradation of this dye in the presence of duckweed. It is hoped that results of our experimental work can be used for designing of future experiments for fast screening of different additives and improvement of technological processes, focusing on purification of sewage and water from micropollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: micropollutants; wastewater; microanalysis; chemometrics; duckweed; cyclodextrin; activated sludge; hybrid nanomaterials micropollutants; wastewater; microanalysis; chemometrics; duckweed; cyclodextrin; activated sludge; hybrid nanomaterials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zarzycki, P.K.; Lewandowska, L.; Fenert, B.; Piaskowski, K.; Kobaka, J. Investigation of Hybrid Methods for Elimination of Brilliant Blue Dye from Water Phase Using Various Nanomaterials Combined with Activated Sludge and Duckweed. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1747. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071747

AMA Style

Zarzycki PK, Lewandowska L, Fenert B, Piaskowski K, Kobaka J. Investigation of Hybrid Methods for Elimination of Brilliant Blue Dye from Water Phase Using Various Nanomaterials Combined with Activated Sludge and Duckweed. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(7):1747. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071747

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zarzycki, Paweł K., Lucyna Lewandowska, Bożena Fenert, Krzysztof Piaskowski, and Janusz Kobaka. 2021. "Investigation of Hybrid Methods for Elimination of Brilliant Blue Dye from Water Phase Using Various Nanomaterials Combined with Activated Sludge and Duckweed" Nanomaterials 11, no. 7: 1747. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11071747

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