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Keratoconus: Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials
Open AccessReview

Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT

Department of Ocular Biology and Therapeutics, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London, EC1V 9EL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios Karamichos
J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6(1), 50-65;
Received: 15 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corneal Disease and Biomaterials)
Corneal blindness affects over 10 million people worldwide and current treatment strategies often involve replacement of the defective layer with healthy tissue. Due to a worldwide donor cornea shortage and the absence of suitable biological scaffolds, recent research has focused on the development of tissue engineering techniques to create alternative therapies. This review will detail how we have refined the simple engineering technique of plastic compression of collagen to a process we now call Real Architecture for 3D Tissues (RAFT). The RAFT production process has been standardised, and steps have been taken to consider Good Manufacturing Practice compliance. The evolution of this process has allowed us to create biomimetic epithelial and endothelial tissue equivalents suitable for transplantation and ideal for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: cornea; epithelium; endothelium; tissue engineering; repair; RAFT; collagen; GMP cornea; epithelium; endothelium; tissue engineering; repair; RAFT; collagen; GMP
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MDPI and ACS Style

Levis, H.J.; Kureshi, A.K.; Massie, I.; Morgan, L.; Vernon, A.J.; Daniels, J.T. Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT. J. Funct. Biomater. 2015, 6, 50-65.

AMA Style

Levis HJ, Kureshi AK, Massie I, Morgan L, Vernon AJ, Daniels JT. Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2015; 6(1):50-65.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Levis, Hannah J.; Kureshi, Alvena K.; Massie, Isobel; Morgan, Louise; Vernon, Amanda J.; Daniels, Julie T. 2015. "Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT" J. Funct. Biomater. 6, no. 1: 50-65.

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