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Open AccessArticle

Anger toward God(s) Among Undergraduates in India

Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7123, USA
Department of Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-03, Karnataka State 580 003, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2017, 8(9), 194;
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
Many people report occasional feelings of anger toward God. However, most evidence pertains to western, predominantly Christian populations. In this study, Indian university students (N = 139; 78% Hindu) completed a survey about anger toward God(s). Polytheists (45%) chose one god to focus on. Measurement invariance tests supported comparisons of anger toward God between the predominantly Hindu Indian sample and three mostly Christian U.S. undergraduate samples (Ns = 1040, 1811, 918). Indian participants reported more current and situation-specific anger toward God than U.S. participants, but less anger toward God over their lifetimes. In the Indian sample, anger toward God correlated positively with other indicators of religious/spiritual struggle, seeing God as cruel and distant, and seeing anger toward God as morally acceptable. Regarding an event involving suffering, anger toward God related positively to the event’s harmfulness, seeing God as responsible, seeing God’s actions as negative, and responses involving substance use and protest toward God. Generally, these findings replicated those from prior U.S. samples. Polytheists who preferred some gods over others or chose to follow a different god reported greater anger toward gods. Results uphold the comparability of anger toward God(s) between Indian and U.S. undergraduates while beginning to reveal key differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: spiritual struggle; anger at God; religious coping; divine struggle; religious struggle spiritual struggle; anger at God; religious coping; divine struggle; religious struggle
MDPI and ACS Style

Exline, J.J.; Kamble, S.; Stauner, N. Anger toward God(s) Among Undergraduates in India. Religions 2017, 8, 194.

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