Next Article in Journal
Farmer’s Knowledge and Perceptions on Rice Insect Pests and Their Management in Uganda
Previous Article in Journal
Developing Mid-Tier Supply Chains (France) and Values-Based Food Supply Chains (USA): A Comparison of Motivations, Achievements, Barriers and Limitations
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Agriculture 2016, 6(3), 37;

Fungal Metabolites for the Control of Biofilm Infections

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Chemical Microbiology, Inhoffenstrasse 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Andolfi
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Metabolites)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3464 KB, uploaded 12 August 2016]   |  


Many microbes attach to surfaces and produce a complex matrix of polymers surrounding their cells, forming a biofilm. In biofilms, microbes are much better protected against hostile environments, impairing the action of most antibiotics. A pressing demand exists for novel therapeutic strategies against biofilm infections, which are a grave health wise on mucosal surfaces and medical devices. From fungi, a large number of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity have been characterized. This review discusses natural compounds from fungi which are effective against fungal and bacterial biofilms. Some molecules are able to block the cell communication process essential for biofilm formation (known as quorum sensing), others can penetrate and kill cells within the structure. Several targets have been identified, ranging from the inhibition of quorum sensing receptors and virulence factors, to cell wall synthesizing enzymes. Only one group of these fungal metabolites has been optimized and made it to the market, but more preclinical studies are ongoing to expand the biofilm-fighting arsenal. The broad diversity of bioactive compounds from fungi, their activities against various pathogens, and the multi-target trait of some molecules are promising aspects of fungal secondary metabolites. Future screenings for biofilm-controlling compounds will contribute to several novel clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal metabolites; biofilm infections; quorum sensing; species interactions; antibiotic resistance; non-microbicidal drugs fungal metabolites; biofilm infections; quorum sensing; species interactions; antibiotic resistance; non-microbicidal drugs

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Estrela, A.B.; Abraham, W.-R. Fungal Metabolites for the Control of Biofilm Infections. Agriculture 2016, 6, 37.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agriculture EISSN 2077-0472 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top