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Article

Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe

1
Department of Social Sciences, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
2
Department of Geography and International Centre for China Development Study, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
3
Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Annelie Holzkämper and Sibylle Stöckli
Agriculture 2016, 6(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture6030029
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Options for Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change)
Effective adaptation determines agricultural vulnerability to climate change, especially in the pre-industrial era. Crop management as an agricultural adaptation to climate change in recent human history, however, has rarely been systematically evaluated. Using Europe as our study area, we statistically compared yield ratio of wheat, rye, barley, and oats (an important performance indicator of an agrarian economy) between Eastern and Western Europe in AD 1500–1800. In particular, a statistical comparison was made of crop yield ratio in the two regions during the warm agricultural recovery period AD 1700–1800. The general trend of crop yield in Eastern and Western Europe basically followed the alternation of climatic epochs, in which the extreme cooling period in AD 1560–1660 drastically reduced the crop yield ratio. The yield ratio of rye in Eastern and Western Europe was very similar throughout the entire study period. However, the yield ratio of wheat, barley, and oats showed different patterns in the two regions and increased drastically in Western Europe in the warm agricultural recovery period, which might have contributed to rapid socio-economic development in Western Europe and eventually the East–West Divide in Europe in the following centuries. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; crop yield ratio; non-parametric analysis; Eastern and Western Europe; early modern era climate change; crop yield ratio; non-parametric analysis; Eastern and Western Europe; early modern era
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pei, Q.; Zhang, D.D.; Lee, H.F.; Li, G. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe. Agriculture 2016, 6, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture6030029

AMA Style

Pei Q, Zhang DD, Lee HF, Li G. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe. Agriculture. 2016; 6(3):29. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture6030029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pei, Qing, David D. Zhang, Harry F. Lee, and Guodong Li. 2016. "Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe" Agriculture 6, no. 3: 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture6030029

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