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Review

Understanding Why Post-Stroke Depression May Be the Norm Rather Than the Exception: The Anatomical and Neuroinflammatory Correlates of Post-Stroke Depression

by 1,2,3,* and 2
1
School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne 3000, Australia
2
Department of Neurology, Western Health & University Melbourne, AIMSS, Level Three, WHCRE, Sunshine Hospital, St Albans 3021, Australia
3
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rajarata, Saliyapura, Anuradhapura 50000, Sri Lanka
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Aaron S. Dumont and Hugues Chabriat
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081674
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Approaches for the Treatment of Cerebrovascular Disorders)
Ischemic Stroke precedes depression. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a major driver for poor recovery, negative quality of life, poor rehabilitation outcomes and poor functional ability. In this systematic review, we analysed the inflammatory basis of post-stroke depression, which involves bioenergetic failure, deranged iron homeostasis (calcium influx, Na influx, potassium efflux etc), excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, disruption of the blood brain barrier, cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen mediated toxicity, activation of cyclooxygenase pathway and generation of toxic products. This process subsequently results in cell death, maladapted, persistent neuro-inflammation and deranged neuronal networks in mood-related brain regions. Furthermore, an in-depth review likewise reveals that anatomic structures related to post-stroke depression may be localized to complex circuitries involving the cortical and subcortical regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokine; depression; ischemia; stroke; apoptosis; excitotoxicity; oncosis; inflammation cytokine; depression; ischemia; stroke; apoptosis; excitotoxicity; oncosis; inflammation
MDPI and ACS Style

Wijeratne, T.; Sales, C. Understanding Why Post-Stroke Depression May Be the Norm Rather Than the Exception: The Anatomical and Neuroinflammatory Correlates of Post-Stroke Depression. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1674. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081674

AMA Style

Wijeratne T, Sales C. Understanding Why Post-Stroke Depression May Be the Norm Rather Than the Exception: The Anatomical and Neuroinflammatory Correlates of Post-Stroke Depression. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(8):1674. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081674

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wijeratne, Tissa, and Carmela Sales. 2021. "Understanding Why Post-Stroke Depression May Be the Norm Rather Than the Exception: The Anatomical and Neuroinflammatory Correlates of Post-Stroke Depression" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 8: 1674. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081674

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