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Association of Vaccine Confidence and Hesitancy in Three Phases of COVID-19 Vaccine Approval and Introduction in Japan

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Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
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Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
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Department of Pediatrics, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki 701-0192, Japan
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Clinical Epidemiology Research Center, Medical Co. LTA (SOUSEIKAI), Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-0017, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe La Torre
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030423
Received: 20 February 2022 / Revised: 8 March 2022 / Accepted: 9 March 2022 / Published: 10 March 2022
Understanding vaccine hesitancy, considering the target region and phase, is an urgent issue to quell the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to monitor COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Japanese population during the three phases of vaccine approval and introduction, and evaluate the association of vaccine hesitancy with vaccine confidence and literacy. We conducted web-based cross-sectional surveys during the three phases of COVID-19 vaccine introduction: January 2021, before approval; June, start of vaccination of the elderly; and September, when about 70% of the target population was vaccinated with at least one dose. There were 7210 participants, aged 20–80 years. We evaluated the association of vaccine hesitancy with vaccine confidence and literacy in the three phases using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The proportion of hesitancy in January, June, and September was 17.5%, 65.3%, and 19.4%, respectively. In any phase, lower vaccine confidence and literacy showed a higher adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of vaccine hesitancy in most items (AOR > 1, p < 0.001). Vaccine hesitancy in June had a different trend in perception of COVID-19 compared to that in the January and September surveys. The findings suggested that hesitancy increases transiently during vaccination introduction phases, and changes as the vaccination program progressed or waves of epidemic. Careful risk communication to increase vaccine confidence and literacy is essential to reduce vaccine hesitancy, especially in the introduction phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; hesitancy; vaccine confidence; vaccine literacy; risk communication; phases of COVID-19 vaccine introduction vaccine; hesitancy; vaccine confidence; vaccine literacy; risk communication; phases of COVID-19 vaccine introduction
MDPI and ACS Style

Tokiya, M.; Hara, M.; Matsumoto, A.; Ashenagar, M.S.; Nakano, T.; Hirota, Y. Association of Vaccine Confidence and Hesitancy in Three Phases of COVID-19 Vaccine Approval and Introduction in Japan. Vaccines 2022, 10, 423. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030423

AMA Style

Tokiya M, Hara M, Matsumoto A, Ashenagar MS, Nakano T, Hirota Y. Association of Vaccine Confidence and Hesitancy in Three Phases of COVID-19 Vaccine Approval and Introduction in Japan. Vaccines. 2022; 10(3):423. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030423

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tokiya, Mikiko, Megumi Hara, Akiko Matsumoto, Mohammad S. Ashenagar, Takashi Nakano, and Yoshio Hirota. 2022. "Association of Vaccine Confidence and Hesitancy in Three Phases of COVID-19 Vaccine Approval and Introduction in Japan" Vaccines 10, no. 3: 423. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030423

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