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Review

Efficacy and Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Tropical Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21561, Egypt
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Department of Clinical Research, Maamoura Chest Hospital, Alexandria 21923, Egypt
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Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21521, Egypt
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Department of Public Health, Medical Research Office, Sudanese Medical Research Association, Khartoum P.O. Box 382, Sudan
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Department of Health Administration and Behavioral Sciences, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21561, Egypt
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Internal Medicine and Cardiology Clinical Pharmacy Department, Alexandria Main University Hospital, Alexandria 21526, Egypt
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Primary Healthcare at Middle Medical District, Ministry of Health and Population, Alexandria 21523, Egypt
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Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21524, Egypt
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Department of Instructional Technology and Learning Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84321, USA
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Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 12613, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simonetta Viviani
Vaccines 2022, 10(3), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030350
Received: 9 January 2022 / Revised: 16 February 2022 / Accepted: 18 February 2022 / Published: 23 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Efficacy and Vaccine Effectiveness)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has threatened global health and prompted the need for mass vaccination. We aimed to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines to prevent mortality and reduce the risk of developing severe disease after the 1st and 2nd doses. From conception to 28 June 2021, we searched PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science, WHO-ICTRP, and Google Scholar. We included both observational and randomized controlled trials. The pooled vaccine efficacy and effectiveness following vaccination, as well as their 95 percent confidence intervals (CI), were estimated using the random-effects model. In total, 22 of the 21,567 screened articles were eligible for quantitative analysis. Mortality 7 and 14 days after full vaccination decreased significantly among the vaccinated group compared to the unvaccinated group (OR = 0.10, ([95% CI, 0.04–0.27], I2 = 54%) and (OR = 0.46, [95% CI, 0.35–0.61], I2 = 0%), respectively. The probability of having severe disease one or two weeks after 2nd dose decreased significantly (OR = 0.29 [95% CI, 0.19–0.46], I2 = 25%) and (OR = 0.08 [95% CI, 0.03–0.25], I2 = 74%), respectively. The incidence of infection any time after the 1st and 2nd doses diminished significantly (OR = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.07–0.4], I2 = 100%) and (OR = 0.179 [95% CI, 0.15–0.19], I2 = 98%), respectively. Also, incidence of infection one week after 2nd dose decreased significantly, (OR = 0.04, [95% CI (0.01–0.2], I2 = 100%). After meta-regression, the type of vaccine and country were the main predictors of outcome [non-mRNA type, ß = 2.99, p = 0.0001; country UK, ß = −0.75, p = 0.038; country USA, ß = 0.8, p = 0.02]. This study showed that most vaccines have comparable effectiveness, and it is purported that mass vaccination may help to end this pandemic. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; efficacy; effectiveness; COVID-19 vaccine; systematic review; meta-anlysis; mortality SARS-CoV-2; efficacy; effectiveness; COVID-19 vaccine; systematic review; meta-anlysis; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghazy, R.M.; Ashmawy, R.; Hamdy, N.A.; Elhadi, Y.A.M.; Reyad, O.A.; Elmalawany, D.; Almaghraby, A.; Shaaban, R.; Taha, S.H.N. Efficacy and Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Vaccines 2022, 10, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030350

AMA Style

Ghazy RM, Ashmawy R, Hamdy NA, Elhadi YAM, Reyad OA, Elmalawany D, Almaghraby A, Shaaban R, Taha SHN. Efficacy and Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Vaccines. 2022; 10(3):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ghazy, Ramy M., Rasha Ashmawy, Noha A. Hamdy, Yasir A.M. Elhadi, Omar A. Reyad, Dina Elmalawany, Abdallah Almaghraby, Ramy Shaaban, and Sarah H.N. Taha. 2022. "Efficacy and Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Vaccines 10, no. 3: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030350

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