Next Article in Journal
D-Stellate Neurons of the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus Decrease in Auditory Nerve-Evoked Activity during Age-Related Hearing Loss
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring Shopper’s Browsing Behavior and Attention Level with an EEG Biosensor Cap
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sex Differences in Context-Driven Reinstatement of Methamphetamine Seeking is Associated with Distinct Neuroadaptations in the Dentate Gyrus
Open AccessReview

Neuromodulators and Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Learning and Memory: A Steered-Glutamatergic Perspective

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(11), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9110300
Received: 7 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Regulation of Learning-induced Neuronal Plasticity)
The molecular pathways underlying the induction and maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity have been extensively investigated revealing various mechanisms by which neurons control their synaptic strength. The dynamic nature of neuronal connections combined with plasticity-mediated long-lasting structural and functional alterations provide valuable insights into neuronal encoding processes as molecular substrates of not only learning and memory but potentially other sensory, motor and behavioural functions that reflect previous experience. However, one key element receiving little attention in the study of synaptic plasticity is the role of neuromodulators, which are known to orchestrate neuronal activity on brain-wide, network and synaptic scales. We aim to review current evidence on the mechanisms by which certain modulators, namely dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and serotonin, control synaptic plasticity induction through corresponding metabotropic receptors in a pathway-specific manner. Lastly, we propose that neuromodulators control plasticity outcomes through steering glutamatergic transmission, thereby gating its induction and maintenance. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuromodulators; synaptic plasticity; learning; memory; LTP; LTD; GPCR; astrocytes neuromodulators; synaptic plasticity; learning; memory; LTP; LTD; GPCR; astrocytes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bazzari, A.H.; Parri, H.R. Neuromodulators and Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity in Learning and Memory: A Steered-Glutamatergic Perspective. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 300.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop