Objectives: This study investigated the effects of therapeutic structured limb exercises intended to improve psychomotor speed in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Forty-four patients with mild cognitive impairment who met the inclusion criteria were selected and assigned randomly to either an experimental group (22 patients) or a control group (22 patients). The numbers of participants were selected based on the calculated sample effect size (N
= 38). The study involved a 10-week intervention, in which participants completed structured limb exercises during 60-min training sessions delivered three times per week. Forty-one subjects completed the experimental programme. Scores in the Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), along with electroencephalography (EEG) data, were collected before, during and after the intervention. The experimental and control groups were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The patients with MCI in the experimental group achieved significantly improved scores in the FTT, the PPT and all dimensions of the MoCA. Moreover, these patients exhibited significant increases in the alpha and beta EEG wave power values in all brain areas of MCI patients, indicating that limb exercise training positively influenced their brain functions. Conclusions: The results conclude that a structured therapeutic limb exercise intervention can effectively improve psychomotor speed in patients with MCI and mitigate declines in cognitive function. This training intervention appears to be effective as a treatment for community-dwelling patients with MCI.
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