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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1532; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9081532

A Field Study on the Freezing Characteristics of Freeze-Sealing Pipe Roof Used in Ultra-Shallow Buried Tunnel

Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
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Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Civil Engineering)
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Abstract

A new pre-supporting technology named the freeze-sealing pipe roof (FSPR) method was adopted in the construction of Gongbei tunnel (Zhuhai, China), a critical part of the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau bridge (HZMB) project. The method combined pipe-roofing with artificial ground freezing (AGF). The pipe roof which included a number of large-diameter steel pipes was designed to play a primary role in load bearing, while the frozen wall between pipes was designed for water sealing. The refrigeration proceeded in two stages called the active freezing period and excavation period. This paper mainly focuses on the freezing characteristics of FSPR to explore how the frozen soil wall developed and changed over time during both periods based on field temperature data. The results show that the development of the frozen wall met the design requirements in fewer than 80 days of refrigeration considering the most unfavorable situation. The distribution of frozen soil along the entire tunnel was non-uniform. Frost heave and thaw weakening problems should be taken into account, since some of the bottom section of the frozen wall was more than 3 m. The frozen soil at the excavation side was visibly influenced by the replenishment of heat due to excavation, while the frozen soil outside the excavation face was much less influenced. The thermal effects of Hurricane Nicole on the frozen soil wall was also observed. The conclusions provide experience, reference, and guidance for the development of similar projects in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow buried tunnel; freeze-sealing pipe roof; ground freezing; freezing characteristics; field study; Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau bridge shallow buried tunnel; freeze-sealing pipe roof; ground freezing; freezing characteristics; field study; Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau bridge
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hu, X.; Wu, Y.; Li, X. A Field Study on the Freezing Characteristics of Freeze-Sealing Pipe Roof Used in Ultra-Shallow Buried Tunnel. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1532.

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