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Analysis of Lookout Activity in a Simulated Environment to Investigate Maritime Accidents Caused by Human Error

1
Division of Navigation & Information Systems, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 58628, Korea
2
Department of Maritime Transportation System, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 58628, Korea
3
Division of Navigation Sciences, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 49112, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9010004
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Accident Analysis and Prevention: Experimental & Numerical Approaches)
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Abstract

Maritime accidents remain a significant concern for the shipping industry, despite recent technological developments. In the Republic of Korea, the leading cause of maritime accidents is navigator error, particularly in collisions and groundings; this cause has led to 79% of maritime accidents, according to a recent assessment. The reduction of navigator error is crucial for accident prevention; however, the lack of objective measures to monitor navigator error remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop an objective classification of navigation behaviors in a simulated environment. The statistical model of classification of lookout activity was developed by collecting participants’ lookout behavior using a Kinect sensor within a given scenario. This classification model was validated in non-scenario experiments. The results showed that seven standard lookout activities during a lookout routine were accurately classified in both the model development and validation phases. The proposed model classification of lookout activity using an optical sensor is expected to provide a better understanding of how navigators behave to help prevent maritime accidents in practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: maritime accidents; lookout behavior classification; optical sensor; machine learning model; simulation environment maritime accidents; lookout behavior classification; optical sensor; machine learning model; simulation environment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Youn, I.-H.; Park, D.-J.; Yim, J.-B. Analysis of Lookout Activity in a Simulated Environment to Investigate Maritime Accidents Caused by Human Error. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4.

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