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Open AccessArticle

The Feasibility of Dynamic Musculoskeletal Function Analysis of the Vastus Lateralis in Endurance Runners Using Continuous, Hands-Free Ultrasound

1
Photoacoustics & Ultrasound Laboratory Eindhoven (PULS/e), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Groene Loper 5, 5612AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2
Cardiovascular Biomechanics Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Groene Loper 5, 5612AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Redha Taiar and Mario Bernardo-Filho
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1534; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041534
Received: 19 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanical Spectrum of Human Sport Performance Ⅱ)
Dynamic imaging of the skeletal muscles used to be strenuous and often impossible to perform manually. Accordingly, long-term dynamic musculoskeletal imaging has not been performed. The feasibility of long-term dynamic musculoskeletal functional analysis using hands-free ultrasound will be demonstrated in ten healthy endurance runners. After every kilometer, the vastus lateralis muscle was imaged whilst running using a fixated probe connected to a smart phone. The image quality was quantified by estimation of the probe-skin contact preservation and the field-of-view stability. Moreover, the pennation angles and muscle thicknesses were computed automatically. Long-term dynamic acquisition was successful in nine out of ten runners. Probe-skin contact loss ranged between 0 and 57% of the gait cycle. The biggest change in field-of-view occurred during the first kilometer with an average decline in complex-wavelet structural similarity index of 0.21, followed by an onward total decrease of 0.09, on average. The mean pennation angle and thickness were approximately constant, with the average fluctuation being 0.94 degrees and 0.11 cm, respectively. The feasibility of long-term musculoskeletal function analysis has been demonstrated, with probe-skin contact loss the main limiting factor. Dynamic, hands-free ultrasound might enable research for a more profound insight in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. View Full-Text
Keywords: musculoskeletal; dynamic ultrasound; vastus lateralis; hands-free ultrasound; marathon; endurance running; field-of-view stability; pennation angle; muscle thickness musculoskeletal; dynamic ultrasound; vastus lateralis; hands-free ultrasound; marathon; endurance running; field-of-view stability; pennation angle; muscle thickness
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sjoerdsma, M.; Caresio, C.; Tchang, B.; Meeder, A.; van de Vosse, F.; Lopata, R. The Feasibility of Dynamic Musculoskeletal Function Analysis of the Vastus Lateralis in Endurance Runners Using Continuous, Hands-Free Ultrasound. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 1534. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041534

AMA Style

Sjoerdsma M, Caresio C, Tchang B, Meeder A, van de Vosse F, Lopata R. The Feasibility of Dynamic Musculoskeletal Function Analysis of the Vastus Lateralis in Endurance Runners Using Continuous, Hands-Free Ultrasound. Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(4):1534. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041534

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sjoerdsma, Marloes; Caresio, Cristina; Tchang, Benjamin; Meeder, Amber; van de Vosse, Frans; Lopata, Richard. 2021. "The Feasibility of Dynamic Musculoskeletal Function Analysis of the Vastus Lateralis in Endurance Runners Using Continuous, Hands-Free Ultrasound" Appl. Sci. 11, no. 4: 1534. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041534

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