The current measurement system of surface scattering rate applied in laser protective materials has the defects of low accuracy, discontinuous diagnosis region and narrow infrared measuring waveband. In order to make up for these shortcomings, a high-precision material-surface-scattering-rate measurement system based on a three-hole integrating sphere is proposed, which can realize the high-precision quantitative measurement on any region of coating surface from near-infrared to far-infrared band. Firstly, a new quantitative relationship between the luminous flux received by detector and the surface scattering rate of coating is obtained by modifying the existing integrating sphere scattering model. Secondly, a high-precision scattering characteristic measurement system based on a three-hole integrating sphere is designed and achieved. The influence of the main design parameters of the integrating sphere on the expected measuring accuracy of the system is investigated by using a TracePro simulation. Accordingly, the optimal design parameters of the system are given. Then, the main sources of the relative measurement uncertainty for the scattering rate are investigated experimentally, and four main relative uncertainty factors are evaluated quantitatively. Finally, according to the error propagation theory, the total experimental relative measurement uncertainty of the system is obtained, which is ±2.22% and 26–56% higher than the current measuring accuracy. The new coating-scattering-rate measurement system proposed in this paper can provide an effective experimental detection means for high-precision quantitative measurement and a performance evaluation for laser-protective-coating surface-scattering rate.
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