Next Article in Journal
Development of Macozinone for TB treatment: An Update
Next Article in Special Issue
Antiphotoaging Effect of (2′S)-Columbianetin from Corydalis heterocarpa in UVA-Irradiated Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Previous Article in Journal
Review of GIS-Based Applications for Mining: Planning, Operation, and Environmental Management
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Cancer Activity of Catechin against A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells by Induction of Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor p21 and Suppression of Cyclin E1 and P–AKT
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Toxicity, and Phenolic Profile of Aqueous Extracts of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Prepared at Different Temperatures

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072270
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Natural Products)
Chamomile and sage are common herbs that are mostly used as infusions due to their beneficial properties. The aims of this study were to determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and potential toxicity of chamomile and sage aqueous extracts prepared at three different temperatures (25, 80, 100 °C) and finally, to detect their phenolic profiles at the optimum temperature. In order to measure the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, Folin–Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assays were applied, respectively. The extraction temperature at 80 °C was the optimum, with maximal antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content for both herbs. Luminescence-based assay demonstrated that all the examined aqueous extracts possessed toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Microtox assay demonstrated no correlation with the other two assays, which were positively correlated. The major phenolics of chamomile were rutin trihydrate, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and apigenin-7-O-glucoside; and major phenolics of sage were rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid K, and luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, as defined by LC-MS of aqueous extracts at 80 °C. It can be concluded that the extraction of herbal aqueous extracts at 80 °C can provide significant bioactive and antioxidant compounds, but their consumption must be in moderation. View Full-Text
Keywords: chamomile; sage; aqueous extracts; extraction temperature; total phenolic content; antioxidant activity; toxicity; phenolic compounds chamomile; sage; aqueous extracts; extraction temperature; total phenolic content; antioxidant activity; toxicity; phenolic compounds
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sotiropoulou, N.S.; Megremi, S.F.; Tarantilis, P. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Toxicity, and Phenolic Profile of Aqueous Extracts of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Prepared at Different Temperatures. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 2270.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop