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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment

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Department of Environmental Medicine and Behavioral Science, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
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Department of Public Health, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
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Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
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HOME AI Inc., 6-7-4, Habikigaoka, Habikino, Osaka 583-0864, Japan
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Research Institute of Environment, Agricultural and Fisheries, Osaka Prefectural Government, 1-3-62, Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan
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Daiwa House Industry Central Research Laboratory, 6-6-2, Sakyo, Nara 631-0801, Japan
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Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Nakaadachi-cho 1, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8306, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Environments 2016, 3(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/environments3040037
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Components extracted from cedar timber have been reported to have stress-reducing effects in humans. If the positive effects of cedar timber in indoor environments are scientifically proven, an indoor environment that utilizes cedar timber may contribute to the improvement or promotion of well-being in humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhaling emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber (Cryptomeria japonica) on the psychological and physiological factors in indoor environments. A case-control study with a crossover design was conducted with 10 subjects occupying two rooms that were controlled for interior materials, indoor climate, and room size. Cedrol and β-eudesmol were specifically detected in the case room. However, no significant differences were observed in psychological and physiological factors. There was a significant loss in vigor in the control group from the time before entering the room to the time after leaving the room; however, this loss in vigor was not seen in the case group. Temperature conditions were higher than the indoor environmental standard in Japan but similar in the two groups. Our results showed a minor positive change in vigor among participants exposed to cedar timber for a short term. Inhalation of emissions of volatile constituents from cedar timber may have positive effects in humans; however, further research on their efficacy is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cedar; emissions; indoor environment; physiological factor; psychological factor; terpenes cedar; emissions; indoor environment; physiological factor; psychological factor; terpenes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azuma, K.; Kouda, K.; Nakamura, M.; Fujita, S.; Tsujino, Y.; Uebori, M.; Inoue, S.; Kawai, S. Effects of Inhalation of Emissions from Cedar Timber on Psychological and Physiological Factors in an Indoor Environment. Environments 2016, 3, 37.

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