Next Issue
Volume 5, September
Previous Issue
Volume 5, March

Table of Contents

Med. Sci., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Repurposing Established Compounds to Target Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs)
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020014 - 19 Jun 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
The diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) carries a dismal prognosis, in particular, when patients present with unresectable disease. While significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of PDAC, this knowledge has not translated into a clear clinical benefit and current [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) carries a dismal prognosis, in particular, when patients present with unresectable disease. While significant progress has been made in understanding the biology of PDAC, this knowledge has not translated into a clear clinical benefit and current chemotherapeutic strategies only offer a modest improvement in overall survival. Accordingly, novel approaches are desperately needed. One hypothesis that could—at least in part—explain the desolate response of PDAC to chemotherapy is the so-called cancer stem cell (CSC) concept, which attributes specific traits, such as chemoresistance, metastatic potential and a distinct metabolism to a small cellular subpopulation of the whole tumor. At the same time, however, some of these attributes could make CSCs more permissive for novel therapeutic strategies with compounds that are already in clinical use. Most recently, several publications have tried to enlighten the field with the idea of repurposing established drugs for antineoplastic use. As such, recycling drugs could present an intriguing and fast-track method with new therapeutic paradigms in anti-cancer and anti-CSC treatments. Here, we aim to summarize important aspects and novel findings of this emerging field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy and Cancer: Current Developments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
The Bronchiectasis Toolbox—A Comprehensive Website for the Management of People with Bronchiectasis
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020013 - 12 Jun 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
While the health burden of bronchiectasis is increasing worldwide, medical and physiotherapy treatment strategies have progressed significantly over the past decade. For this reason, clinicians require readily accessible current evidence based information on the management of this condition. E-learning is a suitable educational [...] Read more.
While the health burden of bronchiectasis is increasing worldwide, medical and physiotherapy treatment strategies have progressed significantly over the past decade. For this reason, clinicians require readily accessible current evidence based information on the management of this condition. E-learning is a suitable educational forum for the development and maintenance of professional skills, however a comprehensive, evidence based, multidisciplinary website for bronchiectasis was not available. The Bronchiectasis Toolbox at www.bronchiectasis.com.au was developed by a team of clinicians in Australia and New Zealand with extensive experience in bronchiectasis. The content of this website, based on national and international guidelines, is presented under the headings: ‘Bronchiectasis’, ‘Assessment’, ‘Physiotherapy’, ‘Indigenous’, ‘Paediatrics’, and ‘Resources’. Through a blend of multimedia resources, this website provides information to consolidate the knowledge and practical skills for health professionals caring for people with this condition. After launching in 2015 the website has received 64,549 hits from over 100 countries and the videos have been viewed 10,205 times in 89 countries. The Bronchiectasis Toolbox is a comprehensive multidisciplinary resource accessible to health professionals worldwide who manage people with bronchiectasis and is a unique solution to an educational need. Regular updates will ensure that the website continues to be relevant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 1st World Bronchiectasis Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
The Effects of Dietary Nutrition Education on Weight and Health Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Survivors
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020012 - 02 Jun 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis portends a poorer prognosis, and the majority of sufferers appear to gain weight. Metabolic syndrome is a common co-condition with breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet has been used to reduce excess weight, metabolic syndrome, and to improve [...] Read more.
Weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis portends a poorer prognosis, and the majority of sufferers appear to gain weight. Metabolic syndrome is a common co-condition with breast cancer. The Mediterranean diet has been used to reduce excess weight, metabolic syndrome, and to improve the inflammatory profile, and therefore may offer the breast cancer survivor specific benefits over and above the currently recommended nutrition guidelines to eat a low fat, healthy diet. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate whether a Mediterranean (MD) or low-fat diet (LF) reduce weight and general health in survivors of stage 1–3 breast cancer through a six-month, six-session education package to support dietary change. A control dietary arm received no intervention. Outcome measures for weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood lipids, blood glucose, dietary adherence, 3-day food diary, and PREDIMED questionnaire and quality of life were assessed. Both dietary intervention arms, on average, lost weight over the course of the intervention, with significant (p < 0.05) decreases seen in BMI and waist circumference measurements. The control arm gained weight and significantly (p < 0.05) increased BMI and waist circumference measurements overall (1.10 ± 3.03 kg, 0.40 ± 1.65 kg/m2, and 1.94 ± 2.94 cm respectively). Positive trends in blood biomarkers were observed for the intervention arms. Dietary adherence was sufficient. Nutritional education and group support appears to exert beneficial effects on health in breast cancer survivors, of lesser importance is the type of diet that forms the basis of the education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer and Cancer-Related Research)
Open AccessArticle
Post-Stroke Bacteriuria: A Longitudinal Study among Stroke Outpatients and Inpatients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020011 - 02 Jun 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Infections of the urinary tract constitute an important post-stroke complication but in Africa, little is known about such infections in relation to stroke patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of bacteriuria among stroke patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching [...] Read more.
Infections of the urinary tract constitute an important post-stroke complication but in Africa, little is known about such infections in relation to stroke patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of bacteriuria among stroke patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Ghana including the prevalence, incidence, risk factors and aetiological agents. This was a longitudinal study involving 55 outpatients and 16 inpatients of stroke from the physiotherapy clinic and stroke admission ward of KBTH respectively. Urine cultures for inpatient subjects were done each day until the patient was discharged. With outpatients, urine specimens were analysed every week or two for 6 months. Information on demographics and clinical history of the study participants were extracted from their clinical records. The results showed that the prevalence of bacteriuria among stroke outpatients and inpatients were 10.9% (6/55) and 18.8% (3/16) respectively (p = 0.411). Among both the outpatients and inpatients, there was one new case of bacteriuria each during the period of follow-up. Overall, 1/9 (11%) of the bacteriuria cases among the stroke patients was symptomatic. Severe stroke (OR = 17.7, p = 0.008) and pyuria (OR = 38.7, p = 0.002) were identified as predictors of bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common organism implicated in bacteriuria and was susceptible to amikacin, but resistant to augmentin, ampicillin, cefuroxime, cotrimoxazole, meropenem, norfloxacin and tetracycline. Overall, bacteriuria is a common complication among both stroke inpatients and outpatients at KBTH, though it appears to be more common among the former. Stroke severity appears to be the main stroke-related determinant of bacteriuria among stroke patients. Bacteriuria among stroke patients is mainly asymptomatic and E. coli is the most important aetiological agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Cost and Distribution of Hysterectomy and Uterine Artery Embolization in the United States: Regional/Rural/Urban Disparities
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020010 - 16 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment [...] Read more.
Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroids while allowing women to keep their uteri. The preponderance of data collection and research has focused on care quality in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, with little on location and viability related to care utilization, accessibility and physical availability. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cost of UAE and classical abdominal hysterectomy with regard to race/ethnicity, region, and location. Data from National Hospital Discharge for 2004 through 2008 were accessed and analyzed for uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy. Frequency analyses were performed to determine distribution of variables by race/ethnicity, location, region, insurance coverage, cost and procedure. Based on frequency distributions of cost and length of stay, outliers were trimmed and categorized. Crosstabs were used to determine cost distributions by region, place/location, procedure, race, and primary payer. For abdominal hysterectomy, 9.8% of the sample were performed in rural locations accross the country. However, for UAE, only seven procedures were performed nationally in the same period. Therefore, all inferential analyses and associations for UAE were assumed for urban locations only. The pattern differed from region to region, regarding the volume of care (numbers of cases by location) and care cost. Comparing hysterectomy and UAE, the patterns indicate generally higher costs for UAE with a mean cost difference of $4223.52. Of the hysterectomies performed for fibroids on Black women in the rural setting, 92.08% were in the south. Overall, data analyzed in this examination indicated a significant disparity between rural and urban residence in both data collection and number of procedures conducted. Further research should determine the background to cost and care location differentials between races and between rural and urban settings. Further, factors driving racial differences in the proportions of hysterectomies in the rural south should be identified to eliminate disparities. Data are needed on the prevalence of uterine fibroids in rural settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gynecology)
Open AccessArticle
Not a ‘Straitjacket Affair’: Anthropometrically Derived Obesity Index Correlates of Elevated Blood Pressure among University Undergraduates
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020009 - 12 May 2017
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Obesity is known to correlate with measures of blood pressure (BP). The nature of the correlations has, however, remained a subject of scientific enquiry, especially when BP phenotypes are disaggregated and obesity is determined by a variety of methods. This study examined the [...] Read more.
Obesity is known to correlate with measures of blood pressure (BP). The nature of the correlations has, however, remained a subject of scientific enquiry, especially when BP phenotypes are disaggregated and obesity is determined by a variety of methods. This study examined the relationship between obesity and BP in young-adult Nigerians. A total of 1610 subjects (53.9% females) were recruited from five universities in the Igbo-speaking part of Nigeria. Relevant BP and anthropometric data were obtained following standard protocols. Appropriate statistical tools were used for data analyses. The results show that 42.2% (49.5% males, 36.1% females) and 13.3% (15.2% males, 11.6% females) of the population had point prehypertension and hypertension, respectively. By body mass index (BMI) standards, 20.6% (12.4% males, 27.5% females) of the population were overweight/obese. Despite the weak positive and significant correlations between BP and the measures of obesity in both males and females in the general population (r = +0.110 to +0.261; p < 0.05), the correlations were found to exist essentially in normotensives, taper in the prehypertensives, and disappear (or became negative) among hypertensives. When analysed along weight status lines, a discordant relationship was found between the sexes. Overall, the relationship between blood pressure and measures of obesity is not linear throughout the BP spectrum. Clearly the said relationship is not a ‘straitjacket affair’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Serum Creatine Kinase-MB Isoenzyme Activity among Subjects with Uncomplicated Essential Hypertension: Any Sex Differences
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020008 - 27 Apr 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major health challenge and more women than men are affected by the condition. Complications as a result of this condition often lead to disabilities and premature death. The objective of this study was to evaluate creatine kinase-MB [...] Read more.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major health challenge and more women than men are affected by the condition. Complications as a result of this condition often lead to disabilities and premature death. The objective of this study was to evaluate creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity in uncomplicated hypertension and to know whether sex differences exist in the activity of the enzyme. Serum creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme activity, troponin I, and lipid profile were evaluated in 140 male and 100 female Nigerians with hypertension. The control group was comprised of 100 (50 males and 50 females) normotensive subjects. Measured parameters were assayed using Selectra Pros chemistry analyzer. The means were compared between males and females using Students’t-test. The mean CK-MB activity of the female hypertensive subjects was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the males. Similarly, the mean cardiac troponin I (cTnI) of the female hypertensive subjects was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the males. Conversely, the mean CK-MB activity of the female normotensive subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than the male counterparts. There was no difference in the levels of cTnI between male and female normotensive subjects. Serum CK-MB activity was higher in female than male hypertensive subjects. In the light of these results, cardiac markers should be routinely done in the evaluation of hypertensive subjects and sex-specific consideration may be recognized in the management of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Exacerbations in COPD Patients with Bronchiectasis
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020007 - 11 Apr 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
There is evidence that coexisting bronchiectasis (BE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aggravates the course of the disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of bacterial exacerbations in COPD patients with BE. The frequency and [...] Read more.
There is evidence that coexisting bronchiectasis (BE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) aggravates the course of the disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency and severity of bacterial exacerbations in COPD patients with BE. The frequency and duration of bacterial exacerbations treated in a 12‐month period, as well as the duration of the exacerbation‐free interval, were evaluated in 54 patients with COPD (Group D) who were diagnosed and assessed according to official recommendations. In 27 patients, BE was diagnosed by high‐resolution computed tomography (HRCT), whereas an equal number of COPD patients who were confirmed negative for BE by HRCT, served as controls. We found a significantly higher mean number of exacerbations in a 12‐month period in COPD patients with BE (2.9 ± 0.5), as compared to their mean number in controls (2.5 ± 0.3) (p = 0.0008). The mean duration of exacerbation, i.e. the mean number of days elapsed before complete resolution of the symptoms or their return to the baseline severity, was significantly longer in COPD patients with BE as compared to their mean duration in controls (6.9 ± 1.8 vs. 5.7 ± 1.4; p = 0.0085). In addition, the mean exacerbation‐free interval expressed in days, in patients with COPD with BE, was significantly shorter than in COPD patients in whom BE were excluded (56.4 ± 17.1 vs. 67.2 ± 14.3; p = 0.0149). Overall, our findings indicate that coexisting BE in COPD patients may lead to more frequent exacerbations with a longer duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 1st World Bronchiectasis Conference)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Pancreatic Endotherapy In Pancreatic Ascites And Pleural Effusion
Med. Sci. 2017, 5(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/medsci5020006 - 27 Mar 2017
Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Pancreatic ascites and effusion is a challenging complication to manage, hence our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of pancreatic endotherapy in pancreatic ascites and pleural effusion. Endotherapy included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a pancreatogram and pancreatic stent placement across the leak [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ascites and effusion is a challenging complication to manage, hence our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of pancreatic endotherapy in pancreatic ascites and pleural effusion. Endotherapy included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a pancreatogram and pancreatic stent placement across the leak in patients with pancreatic ascites/effusion. A total of 53 patients were included after successful cannulation. The male:female ratio was 7.8:1. The pancreatogram revealed a leak from the pancreatic duct in 20/53 (37.73%) patients. The most common leak site was the pancreatic body in 10/53 (18.9%) patients followed by the tail in 6/53 (11.32%) patients and the genu in 4/53 (7.5%) patients. In 29/53 (54.7%) patients, stent was placed beyond the leak site. Sphincterotomy was done in 7/53 (13.2%) patients, and in five patients with an obscure leak site, stent was placed empirically. A total of 39/53 (73.6%) patients benefited in terms of achieving the complete resolution of ascites and pleural effusion. The factors which were significant for the success of pancreatic endotherapy in the multivariate analysis were the site of the pancreatic ductal leak (p value = 0.008) and the ability of the stent to cross the leak site (p value = 0.004). To sum up, bridging the pancreatic ductal leak by stent offers a high rate of success. Pancreatic endotherapy is less invasive and highly effective in managing pancreatic ascites/pleural effusion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop