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The Influence of the Partial Replacing of Inorganic Salts of Calcium, Zinc, Iron, and Copper with Amino Acid Complexes on Bone Development in Male Pheasants from Aviary Breeding

1
Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Akademicka St. 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
4
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Biology, Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 12, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
5
Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 12, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(5), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050237 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Simple Summary

A significant problem of birds reared in farms and then reintroduced to natural living environment is their survival, which is usually much lower than that of the free-living ones. Behavioral and physiological deficiencies rather than morphological anatomy decide about failure, nevertheless, the birds’ body condition, including quality and maturity of skeletal system, are also important. In this context, the problem of proper nutrition for growing game birds is a major one. The level and source of microelements, as well as the source of protein are the main factors affecting bone growth in young captive-reared birds. Since calcium, zinc, iron, and copper are critical nutrients in all practical diets, this experiment was undertaken to determine the possibility of the partial inclusion of organic forms of these elements to the diet of pheasants in order to improve their bone development and survival.

Abstract

This study analyzed the effects of partial replacing of Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu salts with glycine chelates on the measures of bones health in 16-week-old captive-reared male pheasants, allocated to one of the three experimental groups supplemented with Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in forms of inorganic salts (the control group) or groups receiving from the ninth week 25% and 50% of supplemented elements as glycine chelates. At the end of rearing birds receiving chelates were heavier (p < 0.001) and their tibia showed an increase of numerous mechanical parameters: yield and ultimate force (p = 0.028, p < 0.001, respectively), stiffness (p = 0.007), Young modulus (p < 0.001), compared to the control animals. The bones of birds receiving chelates in 50% were also heavier (p < 0.001) and longer (p = 0.014), with thinner cortical bone in midshaft (p = 0.027) and thicker proximal trabeculae (p < 0.001) compared to the control. While both doses of chelates increased mineral density in midshaft (p = 0.040), bone content of Cu and Zn decreased (p = 0.025, p < 0.001, respectively). The content of immature collagen in cancellous bone and articular cartilage increased in groups receiving chelates (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, glycine chelates probably enhanced development of the skeletal system in male pheasants as bones were denser and more resistant to mechanical damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: mineral chelates; pheasants; bones; biomechanical endurance; nutrition mineral chelates; pheasants; bones; biomechanical endurance; nutrition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Flis, M.; Gugała, D.; Muszyński, S.; Dobrowolski, P.; Kwiecień, M.; Grela, E.R.; Tomaszewska, E. The Influence of the Partial Replacing of Inorganic Salts of Calcium, Zinc, Iron, and Copper with Amino Acid Complexes on Bone Development in Male Pheasants from Aviary Breeding. Animals 2019, 9, 237.

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