Next Article in Journal
A Review of Biomechanical Gait Classification with Reference to Collected Trot, Passage and Piaffe in Dressage Horses
Next Article in Special Issue
Myxomatosis and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease: A 30-Year Study of the Occurrence on Commercial Farms in Spain
Previous Article in Journal
Bovine Breeds Identification by Trichological Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Expression of Myoepithelial Markers in Mammary Carcinomas of 119 Pet Rabbits
Open AccessReview

A Review on Mammary Tumors in Rabbits: Translation of Pathology into Medical Care

1
Targos Molecular Pathology GmbH, Germaniastrasse 7, 34119 Kassel, Germany
2
Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(10), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100762
Received: 1 September 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 29 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease and Immunology of Rabbits)
In recent years mammary cancer has been increasingly recognized in pet rabbits. In addition to uterine carcinomas—the most common tumor of female rabbits—mammary cancer can also markedly reduce the life expectancy of pet rabbits. The aim of this review is to raise awareness for these tumors and to report recent progress in related research. Their detailed characterization will likely improve medical care for affected rabbits. Moreover, study results will contribute to comparative pathology and may reveal if the rabbit is a suitable model for certain types of breast cancer in humans. Available information suggests that most invasive cancer cases develop through stepwise progression from non-invasive forms. Thus, early recognition will likely improve a complete cancer cure. So far, the only treatment option is surgical excision and prognostic factors are unknown. Recent investigations have identified tumor features with likely prognostic value. They have also revealed differences and similarities to mammary tumors in other species and breast cancer in women. Despite these initial data, continued research is necessary to gain more insights into the development of these tumors and their molecular features.
The aim of this review is to raise awareness for mammary tumors in rabbits and to report progress in related research. Currently, a standardized tumor classification for rabbits is not available, prognostic factors are unknown and the only treatment option is surgical excision. Studies showed that affected rabbits have a wide age range and are nearly exclusively female or female spayed. Most mammary tumors are carcinomas. These may occur together with non-neoplastic or benign mammary lesions. Frequent microscopic findings are lipid droplets in tumor cells, secretory activity and microscopic heterogeneity. Since carcinomas are often negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER-α/PR), modulation of receptor function will unlikely be beneficial for most rabbits. ER-α and PR status may have prognostic significance, since ER-α- or PR-negative tumors have significantly higher mitotic rates than ER-α- or PR-positive tumors. The frequent secretory activity of rabbit mammary tumors may suggest an influence of prolactin on tumorigenesis. Available data contribute to comparative pathology and are the basis for future molecular studies into the identification of additional prognostic factors and novel therapeutic options. They will also reveal the suitability of the rabbit as a model for certain types of breast cancer in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparative pathology; histopathology; mammary tumors; mammary tumor-like lesions; molecular features; Oryctolagus cuniculus; rabbit; review comparative pathology; histopathology; mammary tumors; mammary tumor-like lesions; molecular features; Oryctolagus cuniculus; rabbit; review
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Schöniger, S.; Degner, S.; Jasani, B.; Schoon, H.-A. A Review on Mammary Tumors in Rabbits: Translation of Pathology into Medical Care. Animals 2019, 9, 762. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100762

AMA Style

Schöniger S, Degner S, Jasani B, Schoon H-A. A Review on Mammary Tumors in Rabbits: Translation of Pathology into Medical Care. Animals. 2019; 9(10):762. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100762

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schöniger, Sandra; Degner, Sophie; Jasani, Bharat; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf. 2019. "A Review on Mammary Tumors in Rabbits: Translation of Pathology into Medical Care" Animals 9, no. 10: 762. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100762

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop