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Correction published on 9 December 2021, see Animals 2021, 11(12), 3510.

Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish

by 1,*,† and 2,3,*
National Research Council of Canada, Halifax, NS B3H 3Z1, Canada
Retd. INRA, 64310 St Pée sur Nivelle, France
Ecoaqua Institute, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35214 Las Palmas, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antony Prabhu and Johan W. Schrama
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2711;
Received: 1 August 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021 / Corrected: 9 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
Our aim is to introduce the mineral nutrition of fish and explain the complexity of determining requirements for these elements, which are absorbed and excreted by the fish into the surrounding water. To date, only the requirements for nine minerals have been investigated. The review is focused on the absorption and the dietary factors that reduce their absorption from feed ingredients of plant and animal origin. Some diseases, such as cataracts, anemia and bone deformity, have been linked to dietary deficiency of minerals.
Aquatic animals have unique physiological mechanisms to absorb and retain minerals from their diets and water. Research and development in the area of mineral nutrition of farmed fish and crustaceans have been relatively slow and major gaps exist in the knowledge of trace element requirements, physiological functions and bioavailability from feed ingredients. Quantitative dietary requirements have been reported for three macroelements (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and six trace minerals (zinc, iron, copper, manganese, iodine and selenium) for selected fish species. Mineral deficiency signs in fish include reduced bone mineralization, anorexia, lens cataracts (zinc), skeletal deformities (phosphorus, magnesium, zinc), fin erosion (copper, zinc), nephrocalcinosis (magnesium deficiency, selenium toxicity), thyroid hyperplasia (iodine), muscular dystrophy (selenium) and hypochromic microcytic anemia (iron). An excessive intake of minerals from either diet or gill uptake causes toxicity and therefore a fine balance between mineral deficiency and toxicity is vital for aquatic organisms to maintain their homeostasis, either through increased absorption or excretion. Release of minerals from uneaten or undigested feed and from urinary excretion can cause eutrophication of natural waters, which requires additional consideration in feed formulation. The current knowledge in mineral nutrition of fish is briefly reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: minerals; trace elements; fish; copper; iron; selenium; manganese; zinc; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium minerals; trace elements; fish; copper; iron; selenium; manganese; zinc; calcium; phosphorus; magnesium
MDPI and ACS Style

Lall, S.P.; Kaushik, S.J. Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish. Animals 2021, 11, 2711.

AMA Style

Lall SP, Kaushik SJ. Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish. Animals. 2021; 11(9):2711.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lall, Santosh P., and Sadasivam J. Kaushik. 2021. "Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish" Animals 11, no. 9: 2711.

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