Next Article in Journal
Demodex crocidurae, a New Demodecid Mite (Acariformes: Prostigmata) Parasitizing the Lesser White-Toothed Shrew and a Redescription of Demodex talpae from European Mole with Data on Parasitism in Soricomorpha
Previous Article in Journal
Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish
Article

Yearly Variations in GCM Concentrations in Female Mountain Hares (Lepus timidus) and the Effect of Pregnancy

by 1,* and 2
1
Swiss Federal Research Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irina Garcia Ispierto
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092710
Received: 5 August 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Reproduction)
The measurement of stress hormones has become a widely used and effective tool for evaluating adrenocortical activity in animals. However, to correctly interpret stress measurements, the potential sampling bias resulting from an oversampling of individuals in different states of pregnancy has rarely been investigated. We found significant yearly variations in states of pregnancy, which is related to the conditions of the females due to the snow cover duration before and at the start of the reproductive period. These results are important for improving the interpretation of stress hormone concentrations in free-ranging populations during the breeding and reproductive periods.
The measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faeces has become a widely used and effective tool for evaluating the amount of stress experienced by animals. However, the potential sampling bias resulting from an oversampling of individuals in different states of pregnancy has rarely been investigated. In this study, we validate a noninvasive method for measuring gestagen metabolites in female mountain hares (Lepus timidus) under controlled conditions. We also measured the concentration of gestagen metabolites of females in a free-ranging population during the early breeding and post-breeding periods from 2014 to 2019. We found significant yearly variations in gestagen metabolites, which were related to the condition of the females due to the snow cover duration before and at the start of the reproduction period. GCMs were significantly influenced by the gestagen metabolite levels. These results are important for improving the interpretation of GCM concentrations in free-ranging populations during the breeding and reproductive periods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alps; noninvasive genetic sampling; pellets; stress hormones; reproduction; season; weather Alps; noninvasive genetic sampling; pellets; stress hormones; reproduction; season; weather
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rehnus, M.; Palme, R. Yearly Variations in GCM Concentrations in Female Mountain Hares (Lepus timidus) and the Effect of Pregnancy. Animals 2021, 11, 2710. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092710

AMA Style

Rehnus M, Palme R. Yearly Variations in GCM Concentrations in Female Mountain Hares (Lepus timidus) and the Effect of Pregnancy. Animals. 2021; 11(9):2710. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092710

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rehnus, Maik, and Rupert Palme. 2021. "Yearly Variations in GCM Concentrations in Female Mountain Hares (Lepus timidus) and the Effect of Pregnancy" Animals 11, no. 9: 2710. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092710

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop