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Review

Practical Management of Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) in Black Rhinoceros (BR; Diceros bicornis)

Disney’s Animal Kingdom®, Animals, Science and Environment, Bay Lake, FL 32830, USA
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Animals 2020, 10(11), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111991
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Practice in Zoo Animal Management)
Black rhinoceros under human care are predisposed to Iron Overload Disorder that is unlike the hereditary condition seen in humans. We aim to address the black rhino caretaker community at multiple perspectives (keeper, curator, veterinarian, nutritionist, veterinary technician, and researcher) to describe approaches to Iron Overload Disorder in black rhinos and share learnings. This report includes sections on (1) background on how iron functions in comparative species and how Iron Overload Disorder appears to work in black rhinos, (2) practical recommendations for known diagnostics, (3) a brief review of current investigations on inflammatory and other potential biomarkers, (4) nutrition knowledge and advice as prevention, and (5) an overview of treatment options including information on chelation and details on performing large volume voluntary phlebotomy. The aim is to use evidence to support the successful management of this disorder to ensure optimal animal health, welfare, and longevity for a sustainable black rhinoceros population.
Critically endangered black rhinoceros (BR) under human care are predisposed to non-hemochromatosis Iron Overload Disorder (IOD). Over the last 30 years, BR have been documented with diseases that have either been induced by or exacerbated by IOD, prompting significant efforts to investigate and address this disorder. IOD is a multi-factorial chronic disease process requiring an evidence-based and integrative long-term approach. While research continues to elucidate the complexities of iron absorption, metabolism, and dysregulation in this species, preventive treatments are recommended and explained herein. The aim of this report is to highlight the accumulated evidence in nutrition, clinical medicine, and behavioral husbandry supporting the successful management of this disorder to ensure optimal animal health, welfare, and longevity for a sustainable black rhinoceros population. View Full-Text
Keywords: chelation; ferritin; hemochromatosis; hemosiderosis; oxidative stress; phlebotomy; transferrin saturation chelation; ferritin; hemochromatosis; hemosiderosis; oxidative stress; phlebotomy; transferrin saturation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sullivan, K.E.; Mylniczenko, N.D.; Nelson, S.E., Jr.; Coffin, B.; Lavin, S.R. Practical Management of Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) in Black Rhinoceros (BR; Diceros bicornis). Animals 2020, 10, 1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111991

AMA Style

Sullivan KE, Mylniczenko ND, Nelson SE Jr., Coffin B, Lavin SR. Practical Management of Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) in Black Rhinoceros (BR; Diceros bicornis). Animals. 2020; 10(11):1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111991

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sullivan, Kathleen E., Natalie D. Mylniczenko, Steven E. Nelson Jr., Brandy Coffin, and Shana R. Lavin. 2020. "Practical Management of Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) in Black Rhinoceros (BR; Diceros bicornis)" Animals 10, no. 11: 1991. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111991

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