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Article

Impact of Cellulose-Rich Organic Soil Amendments on Growth Dynamics and Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani

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Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Biointeractions and Plant Health, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Soil Biology Group, Wageningen University, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Shiri Freilich, Mark Mazzola and Tracey Somera
Microorganisms 2021, 9(6), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061285
Received: 3 May 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
Cellulose-rich amendments stimulate saprotrophic fungi in arable soils. This may increase competitive and antagonistic interactions with root-infecting pathogenic fungi, resulting in lower disease incidence. However, cellulose-rich amendments may also stimulate pathogenic fungi with saprotrophic abilities, thereby increasing plant disease severity. The current study explores these scenarios, with a focus on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Saprotrophic growth of R. solani on cellulose-rich materials was tested in vitro. This confirmed paper pulp as a highly suitable substrate for R. solani, whereas its performance on wood sawdusts varied with tree species. In two pot experiments, the effects of amendment of R. solani-infected soil with cellulose-rich materials on performance of beetroot seedlings were tested. All deciduous sawdusts and paper pulp stimulated soil fungal biomass, but only oak, elder and beech sawdusts reduced damping-off of beetroot. Oak sawdust amendment gave a consistent stimulation of saprotrophic Sordariomycetes fungi and of seedling performance, independently of the time between amendment and sowing. In contrast, paper pulp caused a short-term increase in R. solani abundance, coinciding with increased disease severity for beet seedlings sown immediately after amendment. However, damping-off of beetroot was reduced if plants were sown two or four weeks after paper pulp amendment. Cellulolytic bacteria, including Cytophagaceae, responded to paper pulp during the first two weeks and may have counteracted further spread of R. solani. The results showed that fungus-stimulating, cellulose-rich amendments have potential to be used for suppression of R. solani. However, such amendments require a careful consideration of material choice and application strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial communities; cellulose; damping-off; fungal communities; organic amendments; Rhizoctonia solani; saprotrophic fungi; sustainable agriculture; wood sawdust bacterial communities; cellulose; damping-off; fungal communities; organic amendments; Rhizoctonia solani; saprotrophic fungi; sustainable agriculture; wood sawdust
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MDPI and ACS Style

Clocchiatti, A.; Hannula, S.E.; Rizaludin, M.S.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.; klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Schilder, M.T.; Postma, J.; de Boer, W. Impact of Cellulose-Rich Organic Soil Amendments on Growth Dynamics and Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061285

AMA Style

Clocchiatti A, Hannula SE, Rizaludin MS, Hundscheid MPJ, klein Gunnewiek PJA, Schilder MT, Postma J, de Boer W. Impact of Cellulose-Rich Organic Soil Amendments on Growth Dynamics and Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(6):1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061285

Chicago/Turabian Style

Clocchiatti, Anna, Silja E. Hannula, Muhammad S. Rizaludin, Maria P.J. Hundscheid, Paulien J.A. klein Gunnewiek, Mirjam T. Schilder, Joeke Postma, and Wietse de Boer. 2021. "Impact of Cellulose-Rich Organic Soil Amendments on Growth Dynamics and Pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani" Microorganisms 9, no. 6: 1285. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061285

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