Next Article in Journal
Correction: Shokeen, B., et al. Role of FAD-I in Fusobacterial Interspecies Interaction and Biofilm Formation. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 70
Next Article in Special Issue
Microbial Interkingdom Biofilms and the Quest for Novel Therapeutic Strategies
Previous Article in Journal
The Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Nuts and Dry Nuts Packed in Four Different Plastic Packaging from the Romanian Market
Previous Article in Special Issue
Filling the Void: An Optimized Polymicrobial Interkingdom Biofilm Model for Assessing Novel Antimicrobial Agents in Endodontic Infection
Article

Candida albicans as an Essential “Keystone” Component within Polymicrobial Oral Biofilm Models?

1
School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow University, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
2
Blutest Laboratories, 5 Robroyston Oval, Nova Business Park, Glasgow G33 1AP, UK
3
Glasgow Biofilm Research Network, 378 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow G2 3JZ, UK
4
Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK
5
Oral Healthcare R&D, GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge KT13 0DE, UK
6
Microbiology Department, Lancaster Royal Infirmary, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010059
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 23 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 28 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal and Polymicrobial Biofilms)
Background: Existing standardized biofilm assays focus on simple mono-species or bacterial-only models. Incorporating Candida albicans into complex biofilm models can offer a more appropriate and relevant polymicrobial biofilm for the development of oral health products. Aims: This study aimed to assess the importance of interkingdom interactions in polymicrobial oral biofilm systems with or without C. albicans, and test how these models respond to oral therapeutic challenges in vitro. Materials and Methods: Polymicrobial biofilms (two models containing 5 and 10 bacterial species, respectively) were created in parallel in the presence and absence of C. albicans and challenged using clinically relevant antimicrobials. The metabolic profiles and biomasses of these complex biofilms were estimated using resazurin dye and crystal violet stain, respectively. Quantitative PCR was utilized to assess compositional changes in microbial load. Additional assays, for measurements of pH and lactate, were included to monitor fluctuations in virulence “biomarkers.” Results: An increased level of metabolic activity and biomass in the presence of C. albicans was observed. Bacterial load was increased by more than a factor of 10 in the presence of C. albicans. Assays showed inclusion of C. albicans impacted the biofilm virulence profiles. C. albicans did not affect the biofilms’ responses to the short-term incubations with different treatments. Conclusions: The interkingdom biofilms described herein are structurally robust and exhibit all the hallmarks of a reproducible model. To our knowledge, these data are the first to test the hypothesis that yeasts may act as potential “keystone” components of oral biofilms. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal–bacterial interactions; oral biofilm; high-throughput; polymicrobial; antimicrobials; biofilm models fungal–bacterial interactions; oral biofilm; high-throughput; polymicrobial; antimicrobials; biofilm models
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Young, T.; Alshanta, O.-A.; Kean, R.; Bradshaw, D.; Pratten, J.; Williams, C.; Woodall, C.; Ramage, G.; Brown, J.L. Candida albicans as an Essential “Keystone” Component within Polymicrobial Oral Biofilm Models? Microorganisms 2021, 9, 59. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010059

AMA Style

Young T, Alshanta O-A, Kean R, Bradshaw D, Pratten J, Williams C, Woodall C, Ramage G, Brown JL. Candida albicans as an Essential “Keystone” Component within Polymicrobial Oral Biofilm Models? Microorganisms. 2021; 9(1):59. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Young, Tracy, Om-Alkhir Alshanta, Ryan Kean, David Bradshaw, Jonathan Pratten, Craig Williams, Chris Woodall, Gordon Ramage, and Jason L. Brown. 2021. "Candida albicans as an Essential “Keystone” Component within Polymicrobial Oral Biofilm Models?" Microorganisms 9, no. 1: 59. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010059

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop