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Article

Maternal Gut Microbiome Decelerates Fetal Endochondral Bone Formation by Inducing Inflammatory Reaction

1
Department of Oral Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8525, Japan
3
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-0914, Japan
4
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jeffrey A. Banas and David R. Drake
Microorganisms 2022, 10(5), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10051000
Received: 30 March 2022 / Revised: 29 April 2022 / Accepted: 5 May 2022 / Published: 10 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology of Oral Diseases)
To investigate the effect of the maternal gut microbiome on fetal endochondral bone formation, fetuses at embryonic day 18 were obtained from germ-free (GF) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pregnant mothers. Skeletal preparation of the fetuses’ whole bodies did not show significant morphological alterations; however, micro-CT analysis of the tibiae showed a lower bone volume fraction in the SPF tibia. Primary cultured chondrocytes from fetal SPF rib cages showed a lower cell proliferation and lower accumulation of the extracellular matrix. RNA-sequencing analysis showed the induction of inflammation-associated genes such as the interleukin (IL) 17 receptor, IL 6, and immune-response genes in SPF chondrocytes. These data indicate that the maternal gut microbiome in SPF mice affects fetal embryonic endochondral ossification, possibly by changing the expression of genes related to inflammation and the immune response in fetal cartilage. The gut microbiome may modify endochondral ossification in the fetal chondrocytes passing through the placenta. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal microbiome; endochondral ossification; fetal chondrocytes maternal microbiome; endochondral ossification; fetal chondrocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uchida-Fukuhara, Y.; Hattori, T.; Fu, S.; Kondo, S.; Kuwahara, M.; Fukuhara, D.; Islam, M.M.; Kataoka, K.; Ekuni, D.; Kubota, S.; Morita, M.; Iikegame, M.; Okamura, H. Maternal Gut Microbiome Decelerates Fetal Endochondral Bone Formation by Inducing Inflammatory Reaction. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10051000

AMA Style

Uchida-Fukuhara Y, Hattori T, Fu S, Kondo S, Kuwahara M, Fukuhara D, Islam MM, Kataoka K, Ekuni D, Kubota S, Morita M, Iikegame M, Okamura H. Maternal Gut Microbiome Decelerates Fetal Endochondral Bone Formation by Inducing Inflammatory Reaction. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(5):1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10051000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Uchida-Fukuhara, Yoko, Takako Hattori, Shanqi Fu, Sei Kondo, Miho Kuwahara, Daiki Fukuhara, Md Monirul Islam, Kota Kataoka, Daisuke Ekuni, Satoshi Kubota, Manabu Morita, Mika Iikegame, and Hirohiko Okamura. 2022. "Maternal Gut Microbiome Decelerates Fetal Endochondral Bone Formation by Inducing Inflammatory Reaction" Microorganisms 10, no. 5: 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10051000

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