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Review

Contamination of Soil, Water, Fresh Produce, and Bivalve Mollusks with Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts: A Systematic Review

1
SALUVET Research Group, Animal Health Department, Veterinary Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Veterinary Epidemiology and Public Health Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
3
Computing Services, Research Support Center, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Division of Veterinary Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
5
Unit of Foodborne and Neglected Parasitic Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Roma, Italy
6
Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Infectious Disease Preparedness, Statens Serum Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pat Nuttall
Microorganisms 2022, 10(3), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10030517
Received: 3 January 2022 / Revised: 13 February 2022 / Accepted: 25 February 2022 / Published: 27 February 2022
Toxoplasma gondii is a major foodborne pathogen capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Although oocyst-associated toxoplasmosis outbreaks have been documented, the relevance of the environmental transmission route remains poorly investigated. Thus, we carried out an extensive systematic review on T. gondii oocyst contamination of soil, water, fresh produce, and mollusk bivalves, following the PRISMA guidelines. Studies published up to the end of 2020 were searched for in public databases and screened. The reference sections of the selected articles were examined to identify additional studies. A total of 102 out of 3201 articles were selected: 34 articles focused on soil, 40 focused on water, 23 focused on fresh produce (vegetables/fruits), and 21 focused on bivalve mollusks. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were found in all matrices worldwide, with detection rates ranging from 0.09% (1/1109) to 100% (8/8) using bioassay or PCR-based detection methods. There was a high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.9%), which was influenced by both the sampling strategy (e.g., sampling site and sample type, sample composition, sample origin, season, number of samples, cat presence) and methodology (recovery and detection methods). Harmonized approaches are needed for the detection of T. gondii in different environmental matrices in order to obtain robust and comparable results. View Full-Text
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; oocysts; environment; soil; water; fresh produce; fruit; bivalve mollusk; sampling strategy; methodology Toxoplasma gondii; oocysts; environment; soil; water; fresh produce; fruit; bivalve mollusk; sampling strategy; methodology
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MDPI and ACS Style

López Ureña, N.M.; Chaudhry, U.; Calero Bernal, R.; Cano Alsua, S.; Messina, D.; Evangelista, F.; Betson, M.; Lalle, M.; Jokelainen, P.; Ortega Mora, L.M.; Álvarez García, G. Contamination of Soil, Water, Fresh Produce, and Bivalve Mollusks with Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts: A Systematic Review. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 517. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10030517

AMA Style

López Ureña NM, Chaudhry U, Calero Bernal R, Cano Alsua S, Messina D, Evangelista F, Betson M, Lalle M, Jokelainen P, Ortega Mora LM, Álvarez García G. Contamination of Soil, Water, Fresh Produce, and Bivalve Mollusks with Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts: A Systematic Review. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(3):517. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10030517

Chicago/Turabian Style

López Ureña, Nadia M., Umer Chaudhry, Rafael Calero Bernal, Santiago Cano Alsua, Davide Messina, Francisco Evangelista, Martha Betson, Marco Lalle, Pikka Jokelainen, Luis M. Ortega Mora, and Gema Álvarez García. 2022. "Contamination of Soil, Water, Fresh Produce, and Bivalve Mollusks with Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts: A Systematic Review" Microorganisms 10, no. 3: 517. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10030517

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