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Open AccessArticle

Sense–Analyze–Respond–Actuate (SARA) Paradigm: Proof of Concept System Spanning Nanoscale and Macroscale Actuation for Detection of Escherichia coli in Aqueous Media

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Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
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Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
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Centre for Life Sciences, School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore
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MIT Auto-ID Labs, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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MDPnP Labs, Biomedical Engineering Program, Department of Anesthesiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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NSF Center for Robots and Sensors for Human Well-Being (RoSeHuB), Collaborative Robotics Lab, 193 Knoy Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Actuators 2021, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/act10010002
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 19 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Miniature and Micro-Actuators)
Foodborne pathogens are a major concern for public health. We demonstrate for the first time a partially automated sensing system for rapid (~17 min), label-free impedimetric detection of Escherichia coli spp. in food samples (vegetable broth) and hydroponic media (aeroponic lettuce system) based on temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) nanobrushes. This proof of concept (PoC) for the Sense-Analyze-Respond-Actuate (SARA) paradigm uses a biomimetic nanostructure that is analyzed and actuated with a smartphone. The bio-inspired soft material and sensing mechanism is inspired by binary symbiotic systems found in nature, where low concentrations of bacteria are captured from complex matrices by brush actuation driven by concentration gradients at the tissue surface. To mimic this natural actuation system, carbon-metal nanohybrid sensors were fabricated as the transducer layer, and coated with PNIPAAm nanobrushes. The most effective coating and actuation protocol for E. coli detection at various temperatures above/below the critical solution temperature of PNIPAAm was determined using a series of electrochemical experiments. After analyzing nanobrush actuation in stagnant media, we developed a flow through system using a series of pumps that are triggered by electrochemical events at the surface of the biosensor. SARA PoC may be viewed as a cyber-physical system that actuates nanomaterials using smartphone-based electroanalytical testing of samples. This study demonstrates thermal actuation of polymer nanobrushes to detect (sense) bacteria using a cyber-physical systems (CPS) approach. This PoC may catalyze the development of smart sensors capable of actuation at the nanoscale (stimulus-response polymer) and macroscale (non-microfluidic pumping). View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; lectin; thermo-responsive polymer; food safety; biosensor; artificial reasoning tools (ART); sensor-analytics point solutions (SNAPS); Sense-Analyze-Respond-Actuate (SARA); percepts-environment-actuators-sensors (PEAS); cyber-physical systems (CPS) Escherichia coli; lectin; thermo-responsive polymer; food safety; biosensor; artificial reasoning tools (ART); sensor-analytics point solutions (SNAPS); Sense-Analyze-Respond-Actuate (SARA); percepts-environment-actuators-sensors (PEAS); cyber-physical systems (CPS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giacobassi, C.A.; Oliveira, D.A.; Pola, C.C.; Xiang, D.; Tang, Y.; Datta, S.P.A.; McLamore, E.S.; Gomes, C.L. Sense–Analyze–Respond–Actuate (SARA) Paradigm: Proof of Concept System Spanning Nanoscale and Macroscale Actuation for Detection of Escherichia coli in Aqueous Media. Actuators 2021, 10, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/act10010002

AMA Style

Giacobassi CA, Oliveira DA, Pola CC, Xiang D, Tang Y, Datta SPA, McLamore ES, Gomes CL. Sense–Analyze–Respond–Actuate (SARA) Paradigm: Proof of Concept System Spanning Nanoscale and Macroscale Actuation for Detection of Escherichia coli in Aqueous Media. Actuators. 2021; 10(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/act10010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giacobassi, Cassie A.; Oliveira, Daniela A.; Pola, Cicero C.; Xiang, Dong; Tang, Yifan; Datta, Shoumen P.A.; McLamore, Eric S.; Gomes, Carmen L. 2021. "Sense–Analyze–Respond–Actuate (SARA) Paradigm: Proof of Concept System Spanning Nanoscale and Macroscale Actuation for Detection of Escherichia coli in Aqueous Media" Actuators 10, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/act10010002

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