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Article

Development of an IPM Strategy for Thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus in Processing Tomatoes in the Central Valley of California

1
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida-IFAS, Immokalee, FL 34142, USA
2
University of California Cooperative Extension, Fresno, CA 93710, USA
3
University of California Cooperative Extension, Tulare, CA 93274, USA
4
University of California Cooperative Extension, Merced, CA 95341, USA
5
University of California Cooperative Extension, Woodland, CA 95695, USA
6
University of California Cooperative Extension, Stockton, CA 95206, USA
7
Bayer, Woodland, CA 95695, USA
8
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
9
Department of Entomology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 636; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080636
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus)
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; species Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus; genus Orthotospovirus; family Tospoviridae) is a thrips-transmitted virus that can cause substantial economic losses to many crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Since 2005, TSWV emerged as an economically important virus of processing tomatoes in the Central Valley of California, in part due to increased populations of the primary thrips vector, western flower thrips (WFT; Frankliniella occidentalis). To develop an understanding of the epidemiology of TSWV in this region, population densities of WFT and incidence of TSWV were monitored in California’s processing tomato transplant-producing greenhouses and associated open fields from 2007 to 2013. Thrips were monitored with yellow sticky cards and in tomato flowers, whereas TSWV incidence was assessed with indicator plants and field surveys for virus symptoms. All thrips identified from processing tomato fields were WFT, and females were three-fold more abundant on sticky cards than males. Symptoms of TSWV infection were observed in all monitored processing tomato fields. Incidences of TSWV ranged from 1 to 20%, with highest incidence found in late-planted fields. There was no single primary inoculum source, and inoculum sources for thrips/TSWV varied depending on the production region. These results allowed us to develop a model for TSWV infection of processing tomatoes in the Central Valley of California. The model predicts that low levels of primary TSWV inoculum are amplified in early-planted tomatoes and other susceptible crops leading to highest levels of infection in later-planted fields, especially those with high thrips populations. Based upon these findings, an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for TSWV in processing tomatoes in California was devised. This IPM strategy focuses on strategic field placement (identification of high-risk situations), planting TSWV- and thrips-free transplants, planting resistant varieties, monitoring for TSWV symptoms and thrips, roguing infected plants, thrips management targeting early generations, extensive sanitation after harvest, and strategic cropping to avoid overlap with winter bridge crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: Orthotospovirus; Frankliniella occidentalis; western flower thrips; tomato spotted wilt disease; Solanum lycopersicum; inoculum sources; epidemiology and integrated pest management Orthotospovirus; Frankliniella occidentalis; western flower thrips; tomato spotted wilt disease; Solanum lycopersicum; inoculum sources; epidemiology and integrated pest management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Batuman, O.; Turini, T.A.; LeStrange, M.; Stoddard, S.; Miyao, G.; Aegerter, B.J.; Chen, L.-F.; McRoberts, N.; Ullman, D.E.; Gilbertson, R.L. Development of an IPM Strategy for Thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus in Processing Tomatoes in the Central Valley of California. Pathogens 2020, 9, 636. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080636

AMA Style

Batuman O, Turini TA, LeStrange M, Stoddard S, Miyao G, Aegerter BJ, Chen L-F, McRoberts N, Ullman DE, Gilbertson RL. Development of an IPM Strategy for Thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus in Processing Tomatoes in the Central Valley of California. Pathogens. 2020; 9(8):636. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080636

Chicago/Turabian Style

Batuman, Ozgur, Thomas A. Turini, Michelle LeStrange, Scott Stoddard, Gene Miyao, Brenna J. Aegerter, Li-Fang Chen, Neil McRoberts, Diane E. Ullman, and Robert L. Gilbertson 2020. "Development of an IPM Strategy for Thrips and Tomato spotted wilt virus in Processing Tomatoes in the Central Valley of California" Pathogens 9, no. 8: 636. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080636

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