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Open AccessArticle

Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Apparently Healthy Individuals from Osun State, Nigeria

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo PMB 4400, Nigeria
2
Science Laboratory Department, Federal Polytechnic Ede, Ede 232101, Nigeria
3
Department Infectious Diseases, Viral Gastroenteritis and Hepatitis Pathogens and Enteroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, German Ministry of Health, 13353 Berlin, Germany
4
Host-Pathogen Interactions, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, 63225 Langen, Germany
5
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
6
Gastrointestinal Infections, Zoonoses and Tropical Infections Unit, Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, German Ministry of Health, 13353 Berlin, Germany
7
Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tuebingen, 72071 Tuebingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
C.-T.B. and O.O.O. contributed equally to the work and thus shared last authorship.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050392
Received: 21 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Infections)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major public health concern in low-income countries, yet incidence and prevalence estimates are often lacking. Serum (n = 653) and faecal (n = 150) samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals using convenience sampling technique in six communities (Ore, Oke-Osun, Osogbo, Ede, Esa-Odo, and Iperindo) from Osun State, Nigeria. Serum samples were analysed for total anti-HEV IgG/IgM and anti-HEV IgM using commercially available HEV ELISA kits. Total anti-HEV positive serum and all stool samples were analysed for HEV RNA by RT-PCR. Overall, 15.0% (n = 98/653) and 3.8% (n = 25/653) of the serum samples were positive for anti-HEV total and IgM antibodies, respectively. Total anti-HEV and IgM in Ore, Oke-Osun, Osogbo, Ede, Esa-Odo, and Iperindo was 21.0% (n = 13/62) and 3.2% (n = 2/62), 19.4% (n = 20/103) and 6.8% (n = 7/103), 11.4% (n = 12/105) and 2.9% (n = 3/105), 8.0% (n = 16/199) and 1.5% (n = 3/199), 22.0% (n = 22/100) and 10.0% (n = 10/100), and 17.9% (n = 15/84) and 0.0% (n = 0/84), respectively. All samples (stool and serum) were HEV RNA negative. Anti-HEV seroprevalence was associated with rural location, increasing age, alcohol consumption, and rearing of animals. This study demonstrated a high anti-HEV seroprevalence in Osun State, indicating the need to implement surveillance and asses the hepatitis E burden in Nigeria. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis E virus; seroprevalence; ELISA; PCR; risk factors hepatitis E virus; seroprevalence; ELISA; PCR; risk factors
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Osundare, F.A.; Klink, P.; Majer, C.; Akanbi, O.A.; Wang, B.; Faber, M.; Harms, D.; Bock, C.-T.; Opaleye, O.O. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Apparently Healthy Individuals from Osun State, Nigeria. Pathogens 2020, 9, 392.

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