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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Porcine Dendritic Cells as an In Vitro Model to Assess the Immunological Behaviour of Streptococcus suis Subunit Vaccine Formulations and the Polarizing Effect of Adjuvants

1
Laboratory of Immunology of the Swine and Poultry Infectious Diseases Research Centre (CRIPA), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
2
Laboratory of Streptococcus suis, CRIPA, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
3
Biostatistics Office, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 2M2, Canada
4
F. Ménard Inc., 251 Route 235, Ange Gardien, QC J0E 1E0, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angela H. Nobbs
Pathogens 2017, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6010013
Received: 8 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Streptococcus suis)
An in vitro porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (DC) culture was developed as a model for evaluating immune polarization induced by adjuvants when administered with immunogens that may become vaccine candidates if appropriately formulated. The swine pathogen Streptococcus suis was chosen as a prototype to evaluate proposed S. suis vaccine candidates in combination with the adjuvants Poly I:C, Quil A ®, Alhydrogel ®, TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ®. The toll-like receptor ligand Poly I:C and the saponin Quil A ® polarized swine DC cytokines towards a type 1 phenotype, with preferential production of IL-12 and TNF-α. The water-in-oil adjuvants TiterMax Gold ® and Stimune ® favoured a type 2 profile as suggested by a marked IL-6 release. In contrast, Alhydrogel ® induced a type 1/type 2 mixed cytokine profile. The antigen type differently modified the magnitude of the adjuvant effect, but overall polarization was preserved. This is the first comparative report on swine DC immune activation by different adjuvants. Although further swine immunization studies would be required to better characterize the induced responses, the herein proposed in vitro model is a promising approach that helps assessing behaviour of the vaccine formulation rapidly at the pre-screening stage and will certainly reduce numbers of animals used while advancing vaccinology science. View Full-Text
Keywords: swine; dendritic cells; adjuvants; vaccines; Streptococcus suis; cytokines; Poly I:C; saponins; alum; water-in-oil emulsions swine; dendritic cells; adjuvants; vaccines; Streptococcus suis; cytokines; Poly I:C; saponins; alum; water-in-oil emulsions
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Martelet, L.; Lacouture, S.; Goyette-Desjardins, G.; Beauchamp, G.; Surprenant, C.; Gottschalk, M.; Segura, M. Porcine Dendritic Cells as an In Vitro Model to Assess the Immunological Behaviour of Streptococcus suis Subunit Vaccine Formulations and the Polarizing Effect of Adjuvants. Pathogens 2017, 6, 13.

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