Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Histone Deacetylase 6 Regulates Bladder Architecture and Host Susceptibility to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Gammaherpesviruses in Cancer Pathogenesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neutrophil Migration into the Infected Uroepithelium Is Regulated by the Crosstalk between Resident and Helper Macrophages
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Pathogens 2016, 5(1), 19;

Why Serological Responses during Cystitis are Limited

1,* and 1,2,3,4,*
Departments of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Immunology Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Molecular Genetics & Microbiology Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore 169857, Singapore
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 14 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Aspects of Urinary Tract Infection)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1225 KB, uploaded 14 February 2016]   |  


The high frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs), some of which appear to be endogenous relapses rather than reinfections by new isolates, point to defects in the host’s memory immune response. It has been known for many decades that, whereas kidney infections evoked an antibody response to the infecting bacteria, infections limited to the bladder failed to do so. We have identified the existence of a broadly immunosuppressive transcriptional program associated with the bladder, but not the kidneys, during infection of the urinary tract that is dependent on bladder mast cells. This involves the localized secretion of IL-10 and results in the suppression of humoral immune responses in the bladder. Mast cell-mediated immune suppression could suggest a role for these cells in critically balancing the needs to clear infections with the imperative to prevent harmful immune reactions in the host. View Full-Text
Keywords: recurrent UTI; cystitis; mast cells; defects in memory response; serology recurrent UTI; cystitis; mast cells; defects in memory response; serology

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, H.W.; Abraham, S.N. Why Serological Responses during Cystitis are Limited. Pathogens 2016, 5, 19.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pathogens EISSN 2076-0817 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top